The term "derivative" covers a lot of territory. Technically, derivatives get their name because they derive their value from the instrument on which they are based. They include swaps, futures and options. This market was estimated to be about $1.2 quadrillion as of September 2012, providing a range of opportunity for finance professionals. Let's take a look at the derivatives market from the perspective of someone who may be considering career opportunities here.

Types of Derivatives
Derivative instruments can be traded either on an exchange such as the Chicago Mercantile Exchange or over-the-counter in a dealer market. The following is a sample of the type of derivatives you commonly encounter:

  • Equity derivatives are often associated with futures contracts on various indexes such as the S&P 500, Nasdaq, FTSE (U.K.), CAC (France) or DAX (Germany).
  • Debt/interest rate derivatives would be the Treasury complex on the Chicago Board of Trade or Treasury bills, eurodollars and interest rate swaps on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Contracts for interest rate swaps and credit derivatives are also traded over-the-counter in a dealer market.
  • Foreign exchange derivatives are often the most popular trading opportunities and, as stated above, can be traded either in futures contracts on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange or over-the-counter in a dealer market.
  • Physical commodities derivatives are most often agricultural futures contracts and most recently energy futures contracts.
  • Option contracts are traded on everything you can imagine from cash stocks to futures contracts.

What to Do?
People outside the business have a great many misconceptions about the jobs and career paths available to them on the sell side of the investment business. Generally, there are four venues in which one could start:

  1. Sales
  2. Trading
  3. Analytics
  4. Back-Office

The public is most familiar with sales people or brokers. Salespeople are responsible for bringing in clients (and their assets) and transacting their business. Salespeople are not paid to be market gurus or prophets, although it certainly helps if you can guide your clients toward making good decisions. Within the sales function, there are two very broad categories: retail and institutional.

The typical retail derivative client is almost certainly a "spec" (or speculative) account. In these accounts, investors place trades (usually in futures contracts) for the sole purpose of making a capital gain on their positions. The burnout rate is quite high, so constant solicitation for new clients is a mainstay of the job.

Institutional accounts are almost always using derivative instruments to hedge a position in a corresponding cash security. The consequence of this is that while it's more difficult to gain their business, these clients tend to have a considerably longer tenure.

Traders are the people who trade the actual instrument, whether over-the-counter or on an exchange floor. Traders are charged with the responsibility of "making a market". This means making competitive bids (if the client is selling) or offers (if the client is buying). Traders often have an "inventory" or positions in order to make a liquid market for clients.

Analysts are the people who forecast future events or analyze current ones for their effect on the markets. You probably have seen research reports on any number of items from bonds to stocks to foreign currencies or physical commodities and the analysts' subsequent forecast on possible outcomes and interaction between various sectors of the markets.

Back-office people include everything from compliance officers to accountants. Your personality type will determine what position appeals to you most. People in these positions, while having similar educational backgrounds, have very different psychological make-ups. How extroverted, introverted and cerebral you are plays a crucial role in what position would suit you best and would be offered to you.

Who to Work For
With the blurring of the lines between investment banks and commercial banks, your options are considerable; it more-or-less comes down to a choice of what corporate culture suits you best. Consider the following as just a small sample:

  • Major Banks: Every major, money center bank, either domestic or foreign has a trading desk and an investment bank subsidiary. For example, Citibank now owns what used to be Salomon Brothers in addition to its own trading capabilities. Major Canadian, U.K., French, German, Japanese and Dutch banks are major players as well.
  • Regional Banks: In addition to the larger central banks, smaller regional banks have gotten into the derivatives game.
  • Major Investment Banks and Broker/Dealers: There are a lot of these companies, but a few examples would be Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch and Morgan Stanley. They are bigger and less dependent on your individual opinions. They also give you greater access to larger companies and clients.
  • Regional Broker/Dealers: The size of the firm you choose will have an impact on your work environment, the work you perform and the level of support vs. autonomy you are given. In these regional broker/dealer positions, you will have more of an individual responsibility than that of Merrill Lynch, but less than that of a self-employed position.
  • Futures Commission Merchants (FCMs): These organizations tend to focus on retail accounts.
  • Self Employment as an Exchange Member and Independent Trader: There are no formal educational requirements for this, but you do have to be properly licensed. You should also know that exchanges are placing increasing emphasis on "upstairs" market-making as opposed to pit trading. Therefore, if you work independently on the trading floor, there may be a lot of deals to which you will not have access, which could put your clients at a disadvantage.

Educational Background
With the exception of positions such as Certified Public Accountants and lawyers, the vast majority of brokers, traders and analysts have business educations. Undergraduate degrees in business are almost universal and graduate degrees in business are becoming more commonplace all the time. In general, if you plan to get into the big-time institutional business with a major investment or commercial bank, it will undoubtedly demand an MBA and more often than not, one from an Ivy League school. It's a club - consider it a ticket for admission. The joke on Wall Street is that an Ivy League education is a "union card".

The Working World
Assuming you go to work for the sell side, your level of involvement in the derivatives markets is a function of the size of the firm, its risk profile (or propensity to take or position risk) and the type of client you cover. Some firms are more specialized by product or type of client while others are very general. Some firms will limit you to exchange-traded derivatives, such as futures and options, while others focus on over-the-counter or dealer derivatives. This is the type of business that no amount of school can prepare you for. As such, it is very common that once in the field, you will find yourself drawn to a particular aspect and specialty of it. It could be anything from crude oil futures to interest rate swaps.

Once you are hired, you will be trained in the securities and derivatives markets and then will be required to pass a test in order to receive your license to practice. For example, in the U.S. you will have to pass what is known as a Series 7 for general securities and then a Series 3 for derivatives. But the real education begins once you get your desk and start taking on clients.

Success in the Derivatives Market
Although brokers tend to assume that investors are most concerned about making money, many investors deal with a particular broker because they like and trust the person.

The markets and products offered are continuously evolving, and that concept remains a fundamental part of working as a broker. Therefore, the true product is the level of customer service and quality of advice. Whether retail or institutional, your clients will deal with you if they know you, like you and trust you. The cardinal rule in the investment business is, "know your customer."

The Bottom Line
The derivatives market offers some unique opportunities for career seekers, not least of which is the growing interest in and complexity of these securities. If you're hoping to work in this market, remember that like most jobs in finance, it will take education, ambition and long hours to rise to the top.

Related Articles
  1. Professionals

    Top 4 Most Competitive Financial Careers

    If your goals include a big paycheck and working for a Wall Street firm, then you need to learn how to meet employers' expectations.
  2. Professionals

    Career Benefits From The CFA Institute

    The CFA Institute provides members with a variety of ongoing career and networking benefits.
  3. Fundamental Analysis

    Derivatives 101

    Learn how to use this type of investment as an alternative way to participate in the market.
  4. Investing

    Time to Bring Active Back into a Portfolio?

    While stocks have rallied since the economic recovery in 2009, many active portfolio managers have struggled to deliver investor returns in excess.
  5. Professionals

    The Best Financial Modeling Courses for Investment Bankers

    Obtain information, both general and comparative, about the best available financial modeling courses for individuals pursuing a career in investment banking.
  6. Professionals

    Credit Risk Analyst: Job Description and Average Salary

    Learn what credit risk analysts do every day and how much money they make on average, and identify the skills and education needed for this career.
  7. Chart Advisor

    Now Could Be The Time To Buy IPOs

    There has been lots of hype around the IPO market lately. We'll take a look at whether now is the time to buy.
  8. Entrepreneurship

    Creating a Risk Management Plan for Your Small Business

    Learn how a complete risk management plan can minimize or eliminate your financial exposure through insurance and prevention solutions.
  9. Investing Basics

    5 Tips For Diversifying Your Portfolio

    A diversified portfolio will protect you in a tough market. Get some solid tips here!
  10. Entrepreneurship

    Identifying And Managing Business Risks

    There are a lot of risks associated with running a business, but there are an equal number of ways to prepare for and manage them.
  1. Are secured personal loans better than unsecured loans?

    Secured loans are better for the borrower than unsecured loans because the loan terms are more agreeable. Often, the interest ... Read Full Answer >>
  2. Which mutual funds made money in 2008?

    Out of the 2,800 mutual funds that Morningstar, Inc., the leading provider of independent investment research in North America, ... Read Full Answer >>
  3. Why are mutual funds subject to market risk?

    Like all securities, mutual funds are subject to market, or systematic, risk. This is because there is no way to predict ... Read Full Answer >>
  4. Why have mutual funds become so popular?

    Mutual funds have become an incredibly popular option for a wide variety of investors. This is primarily due to the automatic ... Read Full Answer >>
  5. Do financial advisors have to find their own clients?

    Nearly all financial advisors, particularly when new to the field, have to find their own clients. An employer may provide ... Read Full Answer >>
  6. Do financial advisors get drug tested?

    Financial advisors are not drug tested by any federal or state regulatory body. This means you may receive your Series 6, ... Read Full Answer >>

You May Also Like

Hot Definitions
  1. Take A Bath

    A slang term referring to the situation of an investor who has experienced a large loss from an investment or speculative ...
  2. Black Friday

    1. A day of stock market catastrophe. Originally, September 24, 1869, was deemed Black Friday. The crash was sparked by gold ...
  3. Turkey

    Slang for an investment that yields disappointing results or turns out worse than expected. Failed business deals, securities ...
  4. Barefoot Pilgrim

    A slang term for an unsophisticated investor who loses all of his or her wealth by trading equities in the stock market. ...
  5. Quick Ratio

    The quick ratio is an indicator of a company’s short-term liquidity. The quick ratio measures a company’s ability to meet ...
  6. Black Tuesday

    October 29, 1929, when the DJIA fell 12% - one of the largest one-day drops in stock market history. More than 16 million ...
Trading Center