Finance is an extremely competitive profession, especially at the entry level. The desks of investment professionals' are piled high with the resumes of students who have dreams of big money, nice cars and getting on the path to being Masters of the Universe by the time they are 30. Finance is also a cyclical job market: when the stock market is booming, finance jobs boom as well, but when returns dwindle, so do the job listings. And even when the market is flush with jobs, finding a good job is key. Follow these five tips to dramatically increase your chance of landing a finance job even before hitting graduation.
Tip No.1 - Land An Internship
For entry-level positions, interviewers do not expect candidates to know much. Many companies have orientation and training programs that teach new recruits the specifics of what they need to know, but having background knowledge is still expected. An internship can help to fill in for the lack of full-time experience and is not as difficult to get as a real job. Internships do not generally require much, if any, prior knowledge. They will likely be based around grunt work, performing tasks that anyone can do, such as making copies. But they provide learning experiences, references, networking opportunities and something tangible to talk about in an interview. Doing several internships also provides a great display of work ethic, which is a sought-after quality in the finance industry.
Tip No.2 - Start Early
If you start in the summer before your first year in college, you can have a total of four summer internships before senior year. Is it necessary to do that many? No, but why not? Many finance internships are paid, so there are no excuses. If you are going to get a summer job anyway, it is better to do something that will further your career instead of just flipping burgers. The same holds true when attending college in a metropolitan area. Instead of working part-time at the local clothing store during the school year, file papers for a local investment advisor.
Tip No.3 - Diversify Your Experiences
Don't do five internships for equity traders unless you're 100% sure you want to trade for a living. Try to switch it up a little and land internships around the industry. This will help you gain a better perspective in different areas and help you figure out what you really want to do. If you want to research bonds, an interviewer is likely to ask why. If you had an internship in fixed income and another in equities, you can give a more eloquent answer than, "I just like bonds." Also, the different branches of finance are generally interconnected somehow. Portfolio management makes use of trading and research, for example. Knowing a little about how the different sectors of finance work can give you an edge in the job market.
Finally, work hard at any internship you land. The references can be valuable no matter what, but more importantly, impressing your bosses during an internship can be a great way to open doors for a future full-time job with that company. Many of the summer analyst/internship programs at big banks are created to look for entry-level hires for the next year.
Tip No.4 - Learn to Talk the Talk
To get a job in finance, you should ideally pick a business-oriented major like finance or economics. Many companies say that this does not matter, and it is very common to hear, "We hire all majors - we even have art history majors working at XYZ Company." All is not lost for the art history majors, but it is still certainly better to apply for finance jobs with a finance degree.
Another great way to learn is to make reading the financial news part of your regular routine. Pick up a subscription to The Wall Street Journal and/or the Financial Times and read it every day. As a student, you can normally get discounted subscriptions for these publications. Picking up a weekly magazine like The Economist or Barron's will help expand your knowledge as well.
Immersing yourself in financial reading will help you get used to the terms and jargon of Wall Street, which is one of the biggest hurdles to cross. Do you know what MBS, CDS, BPS, EBITDA and federal discount rate mean? Regularly reading the financial news throughout college will help you pick up all the basics in due time. Even if you are studying this vocabulary in your courses, reading more about finance will help you to solidify that knowledge and feel more comfortable discussing it. Other ways of picking up financial knowledge are reading investing books, from basic to advanced topics, and reading tutorials and guides from financial websites (looks like you're already on the right track there). Treat learning the financial language the same as learning a foreign language. Instead of ignoring words that you don't understand, look those terms up to help broaden your knowledge.
Tip No.5 - Start Your CFA
As stated earlier, the job market in finance is always very competitive. Many applicants will have high GPAs and degrees from good schools and will have done the things listed above. It is always good to go above and beyond to differentiate yourself from the pack. One way of doing this is to take the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) Level 1 exam. The CFA designation is well respected in the financial industry. You'll need to pass three exams and have four years of eligible work experience to obtain the designation, but the first exam can be taken in the final year of a bachelor's program, either in December or June.
Financial professionals know the amount of time and dedication that the program entails (a minimum of 250 hours of study is recommended per exam), so coming out of an undergraduate program having passed the first exam will certainly make you stand out among other job candidates. The commitment to the program will display your work ethic and dedication to finance.
The Bottom Line
In both good and bad times, it is difficult for undergraduates to land a good entry-level position. Your resume is going to get lumped in with hundreds of others from candidates with strong credentials. The competitive nature of the finance job market means that focusing early, gaining experience with internships and gaining knowledge from following the news and reading will help you stay at the front of the pack. Finally, doing something to break off from the pack, like entering the CFA program in your final year of college, can better your chances of landing a good job. Work hard and good luck!