To be an effective trader, understanding your entire portfolio's sensitivity to market volatility is important. This is particularly so when trading forex. Because currencies are priced in pairs, no single pair trades completely independent of the others. Once you are aware of these correlations and how they change, you can use them control your overall portfolio's exposure. (For a guide to all things forex, check out our Investopedia Special Feature: Forex.)
The reason for the interdependence of currency pairs is easy to see: if you were trading the British pound against the Japanese yen (GBP/JPY pair), for example, you are actually trading a derivative of the GBP/USD and USD/JPY pairs; therefore, GBP/JPY must be somewhat correlated to one if not both of these other currency pairs. However, the interdependence among currencies stems from more than the simple fact that they are in pairs. While some currency pairs will move in tandem, other currency pairs may move in opposite directions, which is in essence the result of more complex forces.
Correlation, in the financial world, is the statistical measure of the relationship between two securities. The correlation coefficient ranges between -1 and +1. A correlation of +1 implies that the two currency pairs will move in the same direction 100% of the time. A correlation of -1 implies the two currency pairs will move in the opposite direction 100% of the time. A correlation of zero implies that the relationship between the currency pairs is completely random.
Reading The Correlation Table
With this knowledge of correlations in mind, let's look at the following tables, each showing correlations between the major currency pairs during the month of February 2010.
The upper table above shows that over the month of February (one month) EUR/USD and GBP/USD had a very strong positive correlation of 0.95. This implies that when the EUR/USD rallies, the GBP/USD has also rallied 95% of the time. Over the past 6 months though, the correlation was weaker (0.66) but in the long run (1 year) the two currency pairs still have a strong correlation.
By contrast, the EUR/USD and USD/CHF had a near-perfect negative correlation of -1.00. This implies that 100% of the time, when the EUR/USD rallied, USD/CHF sold off. This relationship even holds true over longer periods as the correlation figures remain relatively stable.
Yet correlations do not always remain stable. Take USD/CAD and USD/CHF, for example. With a coefficient of 0.95, they had a strong positive correlation over the past year, but the relationship deteriorated significantly in February 2010 for a number of reasons, including the rally in oil prices and the hawkishness of the Bank of Canada. (For more, see Using Interest Rate Parity To Trade Forex.)
Correlations Do Change
It is clear then that correlations do change, which makes following the shift in correlations even more important. Sentiment and global economic factors are very dynamic and can even change on a daily basis. Strong correlations today might not be in line with the longer-term correlation between two currency pairs. That is why taking a look at the six-month trailing correlation is also very important. This provides a clearer perspective on the average six-month relationship between the two currency pairs, which tends to be more accurate. Correlations change for a variety of reasons, the most common of which include diverging monetary policies, a certain currency pair's sensitivity to commodity prices, as well as unique economic and political factors.
Here is a table showing the six-month trailing correlations that EUR/USD shares with other pairs:
Calculating Correlations Yourself
The best way to keep current on the direction and strength of your correlation pairings is to calculate them yourself. This may sound difficult, but it's actually quite simple.
To calculate a simple correlation, just use a spreadsheet, like Microsoft Excel. Many charting packages (even some free ones) allow you to download historical daily currency prices, which you can then transport into Excel. In Excel, just use the correlation function, which is =CORREL(range 1, range 2). The one-year, six-, three- and one-month trailing readings give the most comprehensive view of the similarities and differences in correlation over time; however, you can decide for yourself which or how many of these readings you want to analyze.
Here is the correlation-calculation process reviewed step by step:
1. Get the pricing data for your two currency pairs; say they are GBP/USD and USD/JPY
2. Make two individual columns, each labeled with one of these pairs. Then fill in the columns with the past daily prices that occurred for each pair over the time period you are analyzing
3. At the bottom of the one of the columns, in an empty slot, type in =CORREL(
4. Highlight all of the data in one of the pricing columns; you should get a range of cells in the formula box.
5. Type in comma
6. Repeat steps 3-5 for the other currency
7. Close the formula so that it looks like =CORREL(A1:A50,B1:B50)
8. The number that is produced represents the correlation between the two currency pairs
Even though correlations change, it is not necessary to update your numbers every day, updating once every few weeks or at the very least once a month is generally a good idea.
How To Use It To Manage Exposure
Now that you know how to calculate correlations, it is time to go over how to use them to your advantage.
First, they can help you avoid entering two positions that cancel each other out, For instance, by knowing that EUR/USD and USD/CHF move in opposite directions nearly 100% of time, you would see that having a portfolio of long EUR/USD and long USD/CHF is the same as having virtually no position - this is true because, as the correlation indicates, when the EUR/USD rallies, USD/CHF will undergo a selloff. On the other hand, holding long EUR/USD and long AUD/USD or NZD/USD is similar to doubling up on the same position since the correlations are so strong. (Learn more in Forex: Wading Into The Currency Market.)
Diversification is another factor to consider. Since the EUR/USD and AUD/USD correlation is traditionally not 100% positive, traders can use these two pairs to diversify their risk somewhat while still maintaining a core directional view. For example, to express a bearish outlook on the USD, the trader, instead of buying two lots of the EUR/USD, may buy one lot of the EUR/USD and one lot of the AUD/USD. The imperfect correlation between the two different currency pairs allows for more diversification and marginally lower risk. Furthermore, the central banks of Australia and Europe have different monetary policy biases, so in the event of a dollar rally, the Australian dollar may be less affected than the Euro, or vice versa.
A trader can use also different pip or point values for his or her advantage. Lets consider the EUR/USD and USD/CHF once again. They have a near-perfect negative correlation, but the value of a pip move in the EUR/USD is $10 for a lot of 100,000 units while the value of a pip move in USD/CHF is $9.24 for the same number of units. This implies traders can use USD/CHF to hedge EUR/USD exposure.
Here's how the hedge would work: say a trader had a portfolio of one short EUR/USD lot of 100,000 units and one short USD/CHF lot of 100,000 units. When the EUR/USD increases by ten pips or points, the trader would be down $100 on the position. However, since USDCHF moves opposite to the EUR/USD, the short USD/CHF position would be profitable, likely moving close to ten pips higher, up $92.40. This would turn the net loss of the portfolio into -$7.60 instead of -$100. Of course, this hedge also means smaller profits in the event of a strong EUR/USD sell-off, but in the worst-case scenario, losses become relatively lower.
Regardless of whether you are looking to diversify your positions or find alternate pairs to leverage your view, it is very important to be aware of the correlation between various currency pairs and their shifting trends. This is powerful knowledge for all professional traders holding more than one currency pair in their trading accounts. Such knowledge helps traders, diversify, hedge or double up on profits.
The Bottom Line
To be an effective trader, it is important to understand how different currency pairs move in relation to each other so traders can better understand their exposure. Some currency pairs move in tandem with each other, while others may be polar opposites. Learning about currency correlation helps traders manage their portfolios more appropriately. Regardless of your trading strategy and whether you are looking to diversify your positions or find alternate pairs to leverage your view, it is very important to keep in mind the correlation between various currency pairs and their shifting trends. (For more, check out our Forex Tutorial.)
Forex StrategiesSix popular currency pairs and numerous secondary crosses offer euro traders a wide variety of short- and long-term opportunities.
Mutual Funds & ETFsExplore detailed analysis and information of the top three Swiss exchange-traded funds that offer exposure to the Swiss equities market.
Forex EducationThe best times to trade the British pound are centered around economic releases at 1:30 am, 2:00 am, 8:30 am and 10:00 am U.S. ET.
Mutual Funds & ETFsLearn about FEZ, the Euro Stoxx 50 ETF. FEZ tracks the 50 largest companies in Europe, making it the Dow Jones Industrial Average of Europe.
Mutual Funds & ETFsLearn about the ProShares UltraShort Yen, an inverse-leveraged exchange-traded fund based on the value of Japanese yen in U.S. dollars.
Forex StrategiesWant to trade forex using bitcoins? Don’t jump on the bandwagon until you compare the risks to the benefits.
Forex StrategiesWe look at ways to trade forex with bitcoin and the pitfalls in doing so.
Investing BasicsIt’s not easy to profit from IPOs, but the money is there.
Forex FundamentalsAs the world's second largest economy, China's challenge to America’s dominance includes a push to make the yuan (RMB), the world’s reserve currency. Whether it can do that now is unclear.
Mutual Funds & ETFsFind out about currency exchange-traded funds, and learn about some of the best available ETFs that are focused on the Japanese yen.
The risk that a local currency cannot be converted into the currency ...
The Brexit, an abbreviation of "British exit" that mirrors the ...
Spot and forward foreign exchange rates that are used as standard ...
The price of a nation’s currency in terms of another currency. ...
The percentage of open positions held for major currency pairs ...
A pip in foreign exchange trading is a measure of a price movement in a currency pair. "Pip" is an acronym for price interest ... Read Full Answer >>
The goals of covered interest arbitrage include enabling investors to trade volatile currency pairs without risk as well ... Read Full Answer >>
The term pip is an acronym for percentage in point or price interest point. It measures a unit of change within a pair of ... Read Full Answer >>
All other factors being equal, higher interest rates in a country increase the value of that country's currency relative ... Read Full Answer >>
Point, tick and pip are terms used to describe price changes in the stock market and other markets. While traders and analysts ... Read Full Answer >>
The STIX oscillator can be applied to forex trading by signalling when to buy when a currency is in an oversold condition ... Read Full Answer >>