Value investing, and any type of investing for that matter, varies in execution with each person. There are, however, some general principles that are shared by all value investors. These principles have been spelled out by famed investors like Peter Lynch, Kenneth Fisher, Warren Buffet, John Templeton and many others. In this article, we will look at these principles in the form of a value investor's handbook.

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Buy Businesses
If there is one thing that all value investors can agree on, it's that investors should buy businesses, not stocks. This means ignoring trends in stock prices and other market noise. Instead, investors should look at the fundamentals of the company that the stock represents. Investors can make money following trending stocks, but it involves a lot more activity than value investing. Searching for good businesses selling at a good price based on probable future performance requires a larger time commitment for research, but the payoffs include less time spent buying and selling and fewer commission payments. (False signals can drown out underlying trends. Find out how to tone them down and tune them out in Trading Without Noise.)

Love the Business You Buy
You wouldn't pick a spouse based solely on his or her shoes, and you shouldn't pick a stock based on cursory research. You have to love the business you are buying, and that means being passionate about knowing everything about that company. You need to strip the attractive covering from a company's financials and get down to the naked truth. Many companies look far better when you judge them on basic price to earnings (P/E), price to book (P/B) and earnings per share (EPS) ratios than they do when you look into the quality of the numbers that make up those figures.

If you keep your standards high and make sure the company's financials look as good naked as they do dressed up, you're much more likely to keep it in your portfolio for a long time. If things change, you'll notice it early. If you like the business you buy, paying attention to its ongoing trials and successes becomes more of a hobby than a chore.

Simple Is Best
If you don't understand what a company does or how, then you probably shouldn't be buying shares. Critics of value investing like to focus on this main limitation. You are stuck looking for businesses that you can easily understand because you have to be able to make an educated guess about the future earnings of the business. The more complex a business is, the more uncertain your projections will necessarily be. This moves the emphasis from "educated" to "guess."

You can buy businesses you like but don't completely understand, but you have to factor in uncertainty as added risk. Any time a value investor has to factor in more risk, he has to look for a larger margin of safety - that is, more of a discount from the calculated true value of the company. There can be no margin of safety if the company is already trading at many multiples of its earnings, which is a strong sign that, however exciting and new the idea is, the business is not a value play. Simple businesses also have an advantage, as it's harder for incompetent management to hurt the company. (For a complete guide to reading the financial reports, check out our Financial Statements Tutorial.)

Look for Owners, Not Managers
Management can make a huge difference in a company. Good management adds value beyond a company's hard assets. Bad management can destroy even the most solid financials. There have been investors who have based their entire investing strategies on finding managers that are honest and able. To quote Buffett, "look for three qualities: integrity, intelligence, and energy. And if they don't have the first, the other two will kill you." You can get a sense of management's honesty through reading several years' worth of financials. How well did they deliver on past promises? If they failed, did they take responsibility, or gloss it over? (Find out more about Buffett's investing in Warren Buffett: How He Does It.)

Value investors want managers who act like owners. The best managers ignore the market value of the company and focus on growing the business, thus creating long-term shareholder value. Managers who act like employees often focus on short-term earnings in order to secure a bonus or other performance perk, sometimes to the long-term detriment of the company. Again, there are many ways to judge this, but the size and reporting of compensation is often a dead give away. If you're thinking like an owner, you pay yourself a reasonable wage and depend on gains in your stock holdings for a bonus. At the very least, you want a company that expenses its stock options. (Still wondering how to investigate the top brass? Check out Evaluating A Company's Management.)

When You Find a Good Thing, Buy a Lot
One of the areas where value investing runs contrary to commonly accepted investing principles is on the issue of diversification. There are long stretches where a value investor will be idle. This is because of the exacting standards of value investing as well as overall market forces. Toward the end of a bull market, everything gets expensive, even the dogs, so a value investor may have to sit on the sidelines waiting for the inevitable correction. Time, an important factor in compounding, is lost while waiting, so when you do find undervalued stocks, you should buy as much as you can. Be warned, this will lead to a portfolio that is high-risk according to traditional measures like beta. Investors are encouraged to avoid concentrating on only a few stocks, but value investors generally feel that they can only keep proper track of a few stocks at a time.

One obvious exception is Peter Lynch, who kept almost all of his funds in stocks at all times. Lynch broke stocks into categories and then cycled his funds through companies in each category. He also spent upwards of 12 hours every day checking and rechecking the many stocks held by his fund. As an individual value investor with a different day job, however, it's better to go with a few stocks for which you've done the homework and feel good about holding long term. (Learn the basic tenets that helped this famous investor earn his fortune in Pick Stocks Like Peter Lynch.)

Measure Against Your Best Investment
Anytime you have more investment capital, your aim for investing should not be diversity, but finding an investment that is better than the ones you already own. If the opportunities don't beat what you already have in your portfolio, you may as well buy more of the companies you know and love, or simply wait for better times. During idle times, a value investor can identify the stocks he or she wants and the price at which they'll be worth buying. By keeping a wish list like this, you'll be able to make decisions quickly in a correction.

Ignore the Market 99% of the Time
The market only matters when you enter or exit a position; the rest of the time, it should be ignored. If you approach buying stocks like buying a business, you'll want to hold onto them as long as the fundamentals are strong. During the time you hold an investment, there will be spots where you could sell for a large profit and others were you're holding an unrealized loss. This is the nature of market volatility.

The reasons for selling a stock are numerous, but a value investor should be as slow to sell as he or she is to buy. When you sell an investment, you expose your portfolio to capital gains and usually have to sell a loser to balance it out. Both of these sales come with transaction costs that make the loss deeper and the gain smaller. By holding investments with unrealized gains for a long time, you forestall capital gains on your portfolio. The longer you avoid capital gains and transaction costs, the more you benefit from compounding. (Find out how your profits are taxed and what to consider when making investment decisions in Tax Effects On Capital Gains.)

The Bottom Line
Value investing is a strange mix of common sense and contrarian thinking. While most investors can agree that a detailed examination of a company is important, the idea of sitting out on a bull market goes against the grain. It's undeniable that funds held constantly in the market have outperformed cash held outside the market, waiting for a down market. This is a fact, but a deceiving one. The data is derived from following the performance of indexes like the S&P 500 over a number of years. This is where passive investing and value investing get confused.

In both types of investing, the investor avoids unnecessary trading and has a long-term holding period. The difference is that passive investing relies on average returns from an index fund or other diversified instrument. A value investor seeks out above-average companies and invests in them. Therefore, the probable range of return for value investing is much higher. In other words, if you want the average performance of the market, you're better off buying an index fund right now and piling money into it over time. If you want to outperform the market, however, you need a concentrated portfolio of outstanding companies. When you find them, the superior compounding will make up for the time you spent waiting in a cash position. Value investing demands a lot of discipline on the part of the investor, but in return offers a large potential payoff. (Looking for a little more information on index investing, see the Index Investing Tutorial.)

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