In rather significant fashion, the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis recently announced a change to the way it estimates gross domestic product (GDP). The change reflects the inclusion of research and development (R&D) as an investment or asset in the economy. The term amortization is an important concept to intangible assets (such as R&D or a trademark) and reflects the fact that intangible assets have value that must be monitored and adjusted for over time. Amortization helps take care of this, and we explain it in more detail below.

Amortization Defined
Amortization occurs when the value of an asset (usually an intangible asset) is reduced over a specific time period, which is usually over the asset's estimated useful life. A good way to think of this is to consider amortization to be the cost as the asset is consumed or used up while generating sales or profits for a company. Intangible assets can include a patent, trademark or trade name, or a copyright. Major inputs into the amortization process include useful life, residual value and the allocation method, the last of which can be on a straight-line basis that is mostly straightforward.

A more specialized case of the term amortization takes place when a bond that is purchased at a premium is amortized down to its par value as the bond reaches maturity. When a bond is purchased at a discount, the term is called accretion. The concept is again referring to adjusting value over time on a company’s balance sheet, with the amortization amount reflected in the income statement. In this context, the asset is amortized or capitalized over time. Otherwise, an item would simply be expensed and wouldn’t exist as an asset on a company’s balance sheet. A rule of thumb on this is to amortize an asset over time if the benefits from it will be realized over a time period of several years (or longer). With a short expected duration (such as days or months), it is probably best and most efficient to expense the cost through the income statement. Also, amortization refers to capitalizing the value of an intangible asset over time. Depreciation is meant to refer more to capitalizing the value of a tangible asset over time; for example, a piece of equipment or office furniture that a company might purchase.

Intangible Asset Example
Other examples of intangible assets include customer lists and relationships, licensing agreements, service contracts, computer software and trade secrets (such as the recipe for Coca-Cola). Goodwill is another major intangible asset that warrants discussion as it applies to amortization. It used to be amortized over time but now must be reviewed annually for any potential adjustments. The best example of how this can impact a company’s financials in a big way is the purchase of Time Warner in 2000 by America Online (AOL) during the dot-com bubble. AOL paid $162 billion for Time Warner, but AOL's value plummeted in subsequent years and required a goodwill impairment charge of between $40 billion and $60 billion (the amount was heavily debated among the company and accountants). In previous years this amount would have been amortized over time, but it must now be evaluated annually and written down if, as in the case of AOL, the value is no longer there.

GAAP versus IFRS
Firms must account for amortization as stipulated in major accounting standards. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) both have similar definitions on what qualifies as an intangible asset, but there are differences in how their values must be adjusted over time. For instance, development costs to create new products are expensed under GAAP (in most cases) but capitalized (amortized) under IFRS. GAAP does not also allow for revaluing the value of an intangible, but IFRS does. This means that GAAP changes in value can be accounted for through changing amortization schedules, or potentially writing down the value of an intangible, which would be considered permanent. Finally, GAAP stipulates that advertising expenditures be expenses as incurred, but IFRS does allow recognizing a prepayment of these expenses as an asset, which would be capitalized or amortized as they are used at a later date.

Financial Statement Examples
In its August 2013 10-K filing with the SEC, technology giant Intel (Nasdaq:INTC) provided the following exhibit related to operating expenses:

Dollars (In Millions) 2012 2011 2010
Research and development $10,148 $8,350 $6,576
Marketing, general and administrative $8,057 $7,670 $6,309
R&D and MG&A as percentage of net revenue 34% 30% 30%
Amortization of acquisition-related intangibles $308 $260 $18

It detailed that the amortization of intangibles was due in good part to its purchase of software security firm McAfee. You can also see that R&D is expensed annually, even though it results in value in terms of Intel’s new product sales and future profits. Intel provided the following discussion on how it accounts for its identified intangible assets:

"Licensed technology and patents are generally amortized on a straight-line basis over the periods of benefit. We amortize all acquisition-related intangible assets that are subject to amortization over their estimated useful life based on economic benefit. Acquisition-related in-process research and development assets represent the fair value of incomplete research and development projects that had not reached technological feasibility as of the date of acquisition; initially, these are classified as “other intangible assets” that are not subject to amortization. Assets related to projects that have been completed are transferred from “other intangible assets” to “acquisition-related developed technology"; these are subject to amortization, while assets related to projects that have been abandoned are impaired and expensed to research and development. In the quarter following the period in which identified intangible assets become fully amortized, we remove the fully amortized balances from the gross asset and accumulated amortization amounts."

As you can see, the amortization concept is subject to classifications and estimates that need to be studied closely by a firm’s accountants, and by auditors that must sign off on the financial statements.

The Bottom Line
The change to GDP mentioned above boosted economic growth several basis points over the last 50 years and made the economy nearly $560 billion larger than previously estimated. Now that it is considered a long-lived asset, accountants will have to measure whether to adjust or amortize the amount over time. The same goes for a firm’s intangible assets on its balance sheet.

Related Articles
  1. Active Trading

    An Introduction To Depreciation

    Companies make choices and assumptions in calculating depreciation, and you need to know how these affect the bottom line.
  2. Investing Basics

    Patents Are Assets, So Learn How To Value Them

    Innovation is the key to staying on top. Find out how companies protect their ideas and how to figure out how much they're worth.
  3. Forex Education

    Depreciation: Straight-Line Vs. Double-Declining Methods

    Appreciate the different methods used to describe how book value is "used up".
  4. Personal Finance

    Can You Count On Goodwill?

    Carefully examine goodwill and its sources before considering the value of your investment.
  5. Markets

    Intangible Assets Provide Real Value To Stocks

    Intangible assets don't appear on balance sheets, but they're crucial to judging a company's value.
  6. Economics

    Explaining Replacement Cost

    The replacement cost is the cost you’d have to pay to replace an asset with a similar asset at the present time and value.
  7. Economics

    How Does National Income Accounting Work?

    National income accounting is an economic term describing the system used by a country to gather data and determine aggregate economic activity.
  8. Investing Basics

    3 Companies That Hate Debt Financing

    Learn how companies such as Chipotle, Bed Bath & Beyond, and Paychex are able to maintain impressive levels of growth without debt financing.
  9. Fundamental Analysis

    The Economics of FanDuel

    Part of fantasy sports’ success lies in one-day and week-long contests serving as an alternative to season-long games. FanDuel, a leader in this space, has recently surpassed a $1 billion valuation.
  10. Personal Finance

    Invest in Costco? First Understand Its Balance Sheet

    A strong balance sheet sets a company apart and boosts investor confidence. How healthy is Costco based on an analysis of its balance sheets from the last two years?
RELATED TERMS
  1. Quarter - Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4

    A three-month period on a financial calendar that acts as a basis ...
  2. Current Assets

    A balance sheet account that represents the value of all assets ...
  3. Acid-Test Ratio

    A stringent indicator that indicates whether a firm has sufficient ...
  4. Surplus

    The amount of an asset or resource that exceeds the portion that ...
  5. Cash Flow

    The net amount of cash and cash-equivalents moving into and out ...
  6. Days Sales Of Inventory - DSI

    A financial measure of a company's performance that gives investors ...
RELATED FAQS
  1. What does operating profit margin tell a business owner?

    The operating profit margin informs both business owners and investors about a company's ability to turn a dollar of revenue ... Read Full Answer >>
  2. What are the differences between amortization and impairment?

    Amortization and impairment both relate to the value of a company's intangible assets, which are reported on the balance ... Read Full Answer >>
  3. What is the formula for calculating compound annual growth rate (CAGR) in Excel?

    The compound annual growth rate, or CAGR for short, measures the return on an investment over a certain period of time. Below ... Read Full Answer >>
  4. What are some examples of general and administrative expenses?

    In accounting, general and administrative expenses represent the necessary costs to maintain a company's daily operations ... Read Full Answer >>
  5. What is the difference between called-up share capital and paid-up share capital?

    The difference between called-up share capital and paid-up share capital is investors have already paid in full for paid-up ... Read Full Answer >>
  6. How do dividend distributions affect additional paid in capital?

    Whether a dividend distribution has any effect on additional paid-in capital depends solely on what type of dividend is issued: ... Read Full Answer >>

You May Also Like

Trading Center
×

You are using adblocking software

Want access to all of Investopedia? Add us to your “whitelist”
so you'll never miss a feature!