Much of the money that Americans have managed to save now resides in our retirement accounts, such as IRAs and 401(k) plans. IRAs alone account for more than $6.5 trillion of our collective wealth, with 401(k)s and other defined contribution plans adding another $5 trillion, according to the Federal Reserve.

What happens to those accounts when we die is of paramount importance in estate planning. Unlike our other assets, whatever might be left in them will be distributed according to our beneficiary designations rather than through our wills.

That’s not to say that having a will isn’t important, too. It will determine where most of your nonretirement assets will go. If you have minor children, it’s also where you can name their guardians, should something happen to you. You can even use it to make provisions for your pets.

The trouble with beneficiary designations is that many of us made them when we first opened our accounts and might not have revisited them in the years, or even decades, since. Your beneficiary could be a deceased parent, an ex-spouse or some relative you no longer even speak to. If you were to die, the people you'd like to see get the money, such as a current spouse or children who were born after you filled out those forms, could end up with nothing.

The lesson here, of course, is to review your beneficiary designations every year or two – or whenever you experience any major life change – and update them with the account’s custodian as needed. Often that’s as simple as filling out a form online. You can also name contingent beneficiaries, just in case your primary beneficiaries don't survive you.

Note that the beneficiary of your IRA will have some options to consider once that money is his or hers. Different rules apply to spouses than to non-spouse beneficiaries. The rules also differ according to whether the account was a traditional IRA or a Roth IRA. These provisions are explained in IRS Publication 590, “Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs).”

If you happen to have a traditional, defined-benefit pension at your current employer or a former one, you will face another set of estate-planning considerations, especially if you’re married. By law, your spouse is your beneficiary unless he or she waives that right in writing.

When you are ready to collect your pension, you and your spouse will have to decide whether to take it as a lump sum and roll it over into an IRA or receive it as a series of monthly payments. If you choose the latter, you’ll need to determine whether to take it as a joint-and-survivor annuity that will continue to cover your spouse if you die first, or as a single-life annuity that pays you more each month but stops when you die. By law, the joint-life annuity is generally the default option unless your spouse waives it in writing.

Depending on the rules of your particular plan, you may also be able to choose the percentages you and your spouse will each receive. By law your spouse must receive a benefit equal to at least 50 percent of your benefit. But you might be able to increase that – to 75 percent, for example – if you accept a reduced benefit. If you and your spouse are fortunate enough to have traditional pensions from both your employers, you will want to explore all the possible scenarios for maximizing your total benefits over your lifetimes.

If you're a married same-sex couple, you no doubt know that a 2013 Supreme Court ruling (United States v. Windsor) extended pension-inheritance rights, among many other rights, to you. Such couples had previously been excluded as a result of the Defense of Marriage Act of 1996, which had defined marriage as “only a legal union between one man and one woman.”

To check on your pension-plan beneficiary designations and update them if necessary, contact your employer or ex-employer’s plan administrator.

The Bottom Line

If you haven't checked your retirement-plan beneficiaries lately, put that on your to-do list and get it done as soon as you can. If you're not sure whether your beneficiary designations fit with the way your will is written, check with an attorney. If you don't have a will, you know what else to put on your list.

Related Articles
  1. Retirement

    Designating A Trust As Retirement Beneficiary

    Designating a trust as your IRA beneficiary can be beneficial, but it requires proper planning to avoid problems.
  2. Taxes

    Designating A Minor As An IRA Beneficiary

    Leaving liquid assets like cash or securities to minors can be a complicated procedure. Make sure you understand how your gift will be distributed, managed and taxed.
  3. Retirement

    Mistakes In Designating A Retirement Beneficiary

    Make sure your beneficiary designations not only reflect your intentions but also meet the requirements to be effective.
  4. Retirement

    How Much Money Do You Need to Retire at 56?

    Who wouldn't want to retire early and enjoy the good life? The question is, "How much will it cost?" Here's a quick and dirty way to get an answer.
  5. Retirement

    The Best Strategies to Maximize Your Roth IRA

    If a Roth IRA makes sense for you, here are ways to build the biggest nest egg possible with it.
  6. Investing

    What a Family Tradition Taught Me About Investing

    We share some lessons from friends and family on saving money and planning for retirement.
  7. Retirement

    Two Heads Are Better Than One With Your Finances

    We discuss the advantages of seeking professional help when it comes to managing our retirement account.
  8. Retirement

    5 Secrets You Didn’t Know About Traditional IRAs

    A traditional IRA gives you complete control over your contributions, and offers a nice complement to an employer-provided savings plan.
  9. Retirement

    Using Your IRA to Invest in Property

    Explain how to use an IRA account to buy investment property.
  10. Retirement

    How a 401(k) Works After Retirement

    Find out how your 401(k) works after you retire, including when you are required to begin taking distributions and the tax impact of your withdrawals.
  1. How do I change my contingent beneficiary?

    Keeping your beneficiary designations up to date is an important aspect of comprehensive estate planning. Listing a primary ... Read Full Answer >>
  2. What are the pros/cons of naming a trust as the beneficiary of a retirement account?

    This has been the topic of an ongoing debate in the financial community between estate planning attorneys and financial advisors. ... Read Full Answer >>
  3. Can the non-spouse beneficiary of an IRA name a successor beneficiary?

    Whether the beneficiary of an individual retirement account (IRA) can name a successor beneficiary (second generation beneficiary) ... Read Full Answer >>
  4. If an individual still has his or her former spouse as the beneficiary of an IRA, ...

    It depends. Generally, divorce does not effectively change a beneficiary designation unless the divorce decree makes a stipulation ... Read Full Answer >>
  5. My spouse is the primary beneficiary of my IRA. I also have a contingent beneficiary. ...

    A spouse who is the sole primary beneficiary of an IRA can always treat the IRA as his or her own. The contingent beneficiary ... Read Full Answer >>
  6. Can a spouse who is not named as a beneficiary receive assets from an IRA?

    It depends. Generally speaking, the designation of beneficiary form dictates who receives the assets from the individual ... Read Full Answer >>

You May Also Like

Trading Center