Initially, federal deposit insurance provided up to $2,500 in coverage. By all counts, it was successful in restoring public confidence and stability in the nation's banking system. Only nine banks failed in 1934, whereas more than 9,000 had failed during the preceding four years.
In July 1934, the coverage increased to $5,000. Since then, the maximum insurance has changed as follows:
- 1950 to $10,000
- 1966 to $15,000
- 1969 to $20,000
- 1974 to $40,000
- 1978 to $100,000 for IRAs and Keoghs
- 1980 to $100,000 for all accounts
- 2006 to $250,000 for self-directed retirement accounts
- 2008 to $250,000 for all accounts
The FDIC insurance covers the principal and any accrued interest through the date of the insured bank's closing on all your bank deposits including: checking, savings, money markets, and CDs. FDIC does not insure investments in stocks, bonds, mutual funds, life insurance policies, annuities or municipal securities, even if you bought these from an insured bank. U.S. Treasury bills, bonds and notes are also excluded. These are backed by the full faith and credit of the
The amount of coverage you have depends on how you establish the ownership and, if applicable, beneficiary designations.
Single accounts include those:
- Held in one person's name
- Opened under the Uniform Transfers to Minors Act (UTMA)
- For a sole proprietorship
- Established for a decedent's estate
Joint accounts are owned by two or more people. To qualify, all co-owners must:
- Be people, not legal entities such as corporations
- Have equal rights to withdraw funds
- Sign the deposit account signature card
Self-Directed Retirement Accounts
Self-directed retirement accounts are retirement accounts in which the owner - not a plan administrator - directs how the funds are invested. Examples include:
- Traditional IRAs
- Roth IRAs
- Simplified Employee Pension (SIMPLE) accounts
- Section 457 deferred compensation plans
- Self-directed Keogh accounts
- Self-directed defined-contribution plans, for example, 401(k) plans
Revocable Trust Accounts
When you set up a revocable trust account, you generally indicate that the funds will pass to named beneficiaries upon your death. (To learn more, see Establishing A Revocable Living Trust.)
Payable-On-Death (POD) Accounts
Your POD account is insured up to $250,000 for each beneficiary. However, there are some requirements, including:
- The account title must include a term such as:
- In trust for
- As trustee for
- Your beneficiaries must be identified by name in your bank's deposit account records.
- You can only name "qualifying" beneficiaries. These would be your:
Therefore, if you set up a POD account naming your three children as beneficiaries, each child's interest would be FDIC insured for up to $250,000, and your account would have $750,000 in potential coverage.
Living or Family Trust Accounts
Living or family trust accounts are insured up to $250,000 for each named beneficiary as long as you follow the rules:
- The account title must include a term such as:
- Living trust
- Family trust
- Your beneficiaries must be "qualifying" as described above
You may be glad to learn that the coverage extends to more than one group of qualifying beneficiaries. For example, suppose you specify in your living trust that after your death your spouse is to receive an income during his or her lifetime. Then when he or she dies, your four children will get equal shares of what remains. Your account would be insured for $250,000 for each beneficiary (spouse and four children) for a total of $1.25 million.
Irrevocable Trust Accounts
The interest of each beneficiary of an irrevocable trust you establish at the same insured bank is covered up to $250,000. There are no "qualifying" beneficiary rules. But the following requirements must be met; otherwise the trust will fall into your $250,000 maximum single account classification:
- The bank's records must disclose the existence of the trust relationship.
- The beneficiaries and their interests must be identifiable from the bank's or the trustee's records.
- You cannot specify conditions beneficiaries must meet, such as a child must get a college degree, to qualify for the inheritance. (For more insight, read Encouraging Good Habits With An Incentive Trust.)
- The trust must be valid under state law.
- You cannot retain an interest in the trust.
Employee plans that are not self-directed, for instance pension plans or profit-sharing plans, fall into this category. Each participant is insured up to $250,000 for his or her non-contingent interest.
Corporations, Partnerships, Associations and Charities
Deposits owned by a corporation, partnership, association or charity are insured up to $250,000. This amount is separate from the personal accounts of the stockholders, partners, or members. However, they must be engaged in an "independent activity" other than existing for the purpose of increasing FDIC insurance coverage.
The number of stockholders, partners, or members has no bearing on the total coverage. For example, a property owners' association with 50 members will only qualify for $250,000 maximum insurance, not $250,000 per each member.
How to Protect Yourself
Insured funds are available to depositors within a few days after an insured bank's closing, and no depositor has ever lost a penny of insured deposits. Nevertheless, you should take precautions.
Make sure your bank or savings association is FDIC insured. You can call 1-877-275-3342 or check out the FDIC Electronic Deposit Insurance Estimator.
Also take time to review your account balances and the FDIC rules that apply. This could be especially important whenever there has been a big change in your life, for example, a death in the family, a divorce or a large deposit from your home sale. Any of those events could put some of your money over the federal limit. The FDIC offers an online calculator to help you with personal and business accounts.
The FDIC uses the insured bank's deposit account records (ledgers, signature cards, CDs) to determine deposit insurance coverage. Your statements, deposit slips, and canceled checks are not considered deposit account records. Therefore, review the appropriate records with your bank to make sure they have the correct information that will result in the highest available insurance coverage.