According to a 2007 College Board study, having a bachelor's degree means earning 60% more than those with a high school diploma. But even if getting a degree seems like a no-brainer, paying for it is anything but. One investment vehicle designed to help out is the 529 college savings plan, a savings tool used to invest savings for a child's college education. There are no federal tax deductions for contributions to 529 plans, but some states do allow deductions and earnings grow on a tax-deferred basis.

Between 1996, when these plans were introduced, to 2006, the number of accounts had grown to nearly 10 million. Unfortunately, not all 529 plans are the same, and being stuck in a substandard one could leave you with less college savings than you need. Read on to find out how to evaluate your 529 plan. If it isn't making the grade, we'll show you how to find and switch to a better one. (For background reading, see Choosing The Right Type Of 529 Plan.)

Why You May Want to Switch Plans
Just as with any investment, you should periodically review your 529 plan's performance and your satisfaction with the investments. You have the option of switching 529 plans and, depending on your plan's cost and earnings record, you may want to consider doing so. Before making a decision, make sure you take the time to understand your current plan and carefully weigh its expenses, tax benefits and performance record. Also be aware of any costs or consequences of switching plans before doing so.

There are a number of reasons to consider switching 529 plans. Let's look at some of the most commonly-cited reasons:

  • Lower costs. Every state offers its own 529 college savings plan, and each charges different fees and expenses. Check to see what your current plan expenses are. For example, are you paying an annual fee? A management fee? A maintenance fee? Transaction fees? In addition to standard fees you may be paying more money if you are participating in an out-of-state plan. Plan sponsors are required to disclose fees to investors, so be sure to carefully research your plan's fee structure.

    If you invested in a 529 plan through an investment advisor, broker or bank (a "broker-sold college savings plan") you are likely also paying additional fees including a broker commission, annual distribution fee and, depending on the share classes that your broker offers, perhaps deferred sales charged when you withdraw money from the plan. By switching and investing in a plan directly through the plan's sponsor (a "direct-sold college savings plan"), and not through a broker, you can save on sales fees and commissions.

    Fees and expenses vary by plan and can add up to a significant amount of money out of your 529 plan each year. Find out what you're paying and how your plan fees compare with other plans as you evaluate your choices. Consider using FINRA's 529 College Savings Plan Fee and Expense Analyzer to compare costs between plans.

  • Poor plan performance. Investing involves risk; 529 plans are subject to normal market gains and losses like any other investment. However, if your plan is consistently reporting losses or meager increases compared to the overall market or to other state plans, you may want to dig deeper and evaluate the reason behind the losses. It may be that your investment goals are not aligned with the plan option you chose for the funds and you may want to switch your investment option within the plan. However, you may want to pull your savings from the plan completely and invest in a different state's plan that has a better demonstrated return on investments. (For more insight, see Gauge Portfolio Performance By Measuring Returns.)
  • Plan management is changing. 529 plans are managed by professional investment advisors and financial services firms. From time to time, states may elect to change the team or firm overseeing their plans. They are required to update investors about any changes to the plan including a change in plan management. Take the time to learn what a new management team may mean for how your plan's funds are invested. You can research investment advisors through the SEC's Investment Advisor website. If you are unconvinced that either the new team or the investment option proposed changes are in line with your investment goals, you may want to consider switching plans. (For more insight, see Assess Your Investment Manager.)
  • In-state tax deduction. If you have been participating in an out-of-state plan, you may want to consider switching to your in-state plan if your state provides income tax deduction or tax credit for contributions. Check to make sure that your state's plan fees don't outweigh the tax benefit and that your rollover contribution would be treated the same as a regular contribution by ensuring that it will be eligible for the deduction.
  • Increased flexibility and options. Plans typically offer at least two or three choices for investing your savings, such as stock mutual funds, bond mutual funds and money market funds. Those investing options usually reflect different levels of risk. Your risk tolerance will be determined, in part, by when you are going to need to use your plan funds. You may want a plan that provides more options than you currently have, or you may not like some of your current plan's restrictions, such as your ability to change beneficiaries or transfer plan ownership to a different account holder.

How to Go About Switching Plans
Once you have decided to pull out of your current plan, you will need to evaluate and choose another plan to roll your savings into. You can compare 529 college savings plans through the College Savings Plan Network website. Once you have selected a new plan, there are two ways that you can switch:

  1. Complete a rollover contribution form for the new 529 plan and the administrator of the new plan will coordinate a transfer of your funds from your current plan.
  2. Request a distribution of the entire account holdings from your current plan and deposit the same amount in the new 529 plan as a rollover.

What to Look Out For Before Switching Plans
Before you rush to switch plans, you should be aware of - and avoid - possible costly penalties and fees:

  • 60-Day Window. There is a 60-day window for all plan rollovers, meaning that you must deposit all funds withdrawn from one plan into another plan within 60 days of receipt.
  • 12-Month Limit. You can only change plans once every 12 months; change any more frequently than that and you'll risk a 10% penalty and federal tax bill on your plan earnings.
  • State Fees. Some states charge a fee for a direct-to-plan rollover request.
  • Possible Recapture Tax. Check to see how your plan treats the tax deduction for funds you have already deposited. Some states will "recapture" (bill you for) the tax deduction you received for deposits made into your plan if you choose to switch to another state's 529 college savings plan.

Review your current 529 college savings plan to ensure that your earnings aren't being outstripped by fees, expenses, possible lost tax benefits and poor earnings. If you are not satisfied with your plan, weigh your options carefully and then select a plan that is more suited to your investment goals and preferences. By following simple plan rollover instructions, you can move into a plan that helps you keep on track to save for your child's college education.

Related Articles
  1. Insurance

    Investing In Your Child's Education

    Overwhelmed by increasing tuition costs for your kids? The U.S. government can help.
  2. Savings

    Choosing The Right 529 Education Savings Plan

    Before you fund one of these education-savings vehicles, be sure you know their differences.
  3. Savings

    529 Plan Tutorial

    This comprehensive guide goes through what a 529 plan is and how to set one up, contribute to it and withdraw from it.
  4. Investing

    How Trust Funds Can Safeguard Your Children

    Certain types of trust funds can help to protect your assets from bankruptcies and civil actions, and can be established to safeguard your children and designated beneficiaries.
  5. Taxes

    The Top 10 Caribbean Tax Havens

    Discover relevant tax policy information about the top 10 tax havens located in the Caribbean, including the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas.
  6. Professionals

    How to Protect Retirement and Help Adult Kids

    Parents can both protect their retirement money and help their adult kids. Here's how.
  7. Budgeting

    How to Cost Effectively Spend on Baby Clothes

    Don't let your baby's wardrobe derail your budget. These top tips help you to save money and spend wisely on baby clothes.
  8. Budgeting

    Key Questions to Ask Before Moving in Together

    Moving in together is a big step. Here are some key financial questions to ask your partner before you make the move.
  9. Personal Finance

    Avoid These 5 Financial Mistakes in a Divorce

    To ensure you get what's rightfully your's in a divorce, avoid these financial mistakes.
  10. Investing

    5 Ways to Reduce Your Taxes After a Windfall Gain

    Windfall income is a welcome padding to any bank account, but plan for the government's share before you start spending.
  1. What is the annual contribution limit for a 529A account?

    Contributions to a 529A plan are limited up to the annual gift tax exclusion limit, currently $14,000 a year in after-tax ... Read Full Answer >>
  2. Can minors invest in mutual funds?

    A mutual fund can be opened under the name of a minor through a custodial account overseen by a guardian. The custodian holds ... Read Full Answer >>
  3. How do hedge funds use equity options?

    With the growth in the size and number of hedge funds over the past decade, the interest in how these funds go about generating ... Read Full Answer >>
  4. Are Cafeteria plans taxable?

    Whether the benefits you receive through your employer-sponsored cafeteria plan are taxable depends entirely on which benefits ... Read Full Answer >>
  5. Why is the Cayman Islands considered a tax haven?

    The Cayman Islands is one of the most well-known tax havens in the world. Unlike most countries, the Cayman Islands does ... Read Full Answer >>
  6. Why is Luxembourg considered a tax haven?

    Luxembourg has been the tax haven of choice for many corporations and mega-rich individuals around the world since the 197 ... Read Full Answer >>

You May Also Like

Hot Definitions
  1. Ex Works (EXW)

    An international trade term requiring the seller to make goods ready for pickup at his or her own place of business. All ...
  2. Letter of Intent - LOI

    A document outlining the terms of an agreement before it is finalized. LOIs are usually not legally binding in their entirety. ...
  3. Purchasing Power

    The value of a currency expressed in terms of the amount of goods or services that one unit of money can buy. Purchasing ...
  4. Real Estate Investment Trust - REIT

    A REIT is a type of security that invests in real estate through property or mortgages and often trades on major exchanges ...
  5. Section 1231 Property

    A tax term relating to depreciable business property that has been held for over a year. Section 1231 property includes buildings, ...
  6. Term Deposit

    A deposit held at a financial institution that has a fixed term, and guarantees return of principal.
Trading Center
You are using adblocking software

Want access to all of Investopedia? Add us to your “whitelist”
so you'll never miss a feature!