This is a question that puzzles many people because, unlike individuals, who must file their taxes to the IRS every year within the exact same time period (by April 15), companies have the benefit of deciding when their fiscal year begins and ends.

There are a couple of things to know:

  1. Corporations must declare their fiscal year-end (or beginning) when they first form. They can't just change it from year to year.
  2. Unlike individuals, corporations must submit quarterly reports of their financial figures to the SEC.

However, the main reason companies choose different fiscal year-ends is that their industries fluctuate at various times. Thus, by being able to adjust the timing of their earnings reports, companies can minimize the negative seasonal effects that occur within their specific industries. For example, a company that has to buy inventory during the summer months probably won't want to report its earnings during this time because the inventory purchases will decrease its earnings.

To learn more about earnings reports, check out Surprising Earnings Results, Research Report Red Flags and Types Of EPS.

  1. How can working capital affect a company's finances?

    Working capital, or total current assets minus total current liabilities, can affect a company's longer-term investment effectiveness ... Read Full Answer >>
  2. What are working capital costs?

    Working capital costs (WCC) refer to the costs of maintaining daily operations at an organization. These costs take into ... Read Full Answer >>
  3. How do I read and analyze an income statement?

    The income statement, also known as the profit and loss (P&L) statement, is the financial statement that depicts the ... Read Full Answer >>
  4. Who actually declares a dividend?

    It is a company's board of directors who actually declares a dividend. The declaration date is the first of four important ... Read Full Answer >>
  5. How do dividends affect the balance sheet?

    Dividends paid in cash affect a company's balance sheet by decreasing the company's cash account on the asset side and decreasing ... Read Full Answer >>
  6. Are dividends considered an expense?

    Cash or stock dividends distributed to shareholders are not considered an expense on a company's income statement. Stock ... Read Full Answer >>
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