The time value of money, or TVM, assumes a dollar in the present is worth more than a dollar in the future because of variables such as inflation and interest rates. Inflation is the general increase in prices. The value of money depreciates as time goes by as a result of a change in the general level of prices.
Changes in the price level are reflected in the interest rate. The interest rate is charged by financial institutions on loans to individuals or businesses and TVM is taken into account in setting the rate.
TVM is a very important concept in finance. It is also described as discounted cash flow (DCF). DCF is a technique used to determine the present value of a certain amount of money when received at a future date. The interest rate is used as the discounting factor. The discounting factor can be found by using a present value, or PV, table.
A PV table shows discount factors from time 0, or the current day, onward. The later money is received, the less value it has, and $1 today is worth more than $1 received at a date in the future. At time 0, the discount factor is 1, and as time goes by, the discount factor decreases. A present value calculator is used to obtain the value of $1 or any other sum of money over different time periods.
If an individual has $100 and does nothing with it, the value of that $100 declines. However, if the money is deposited in a savings account, the bank pays interest. Therefore, it is best to deposit the money in a savings account or in an asset that appreciates in value over time. A PV calculator can be used to determine the amount of money required in relation to present versus future consumption.

Why would you take DCF into account rather than simply projecting future revenues?
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How do you use a financial calculator to determine present value?
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What is the difference between present value and net present value?
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What are the disadvantages of using net present value as an investment criterion?
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What impact does inflation have on the time value of money?
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When and why should the terminal value be discounted?
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Time Value of Money  TVM
The idea that money available at the present time is worth more ... 
Adjusted Present Value  APV
The Net Present Value (NPV) of a project if financed solely by ... 
Terminal Value  TV
The value of a bond at maturity, or of an asset at a specified, ... 
Discounted Future Earnings
A method of valuation to estimate the value of a firm. 
Present Value Interest Factor Of Annuity  PVIFA
A factor which can be used to calculate the present value of ... 
Valuation
The process of determining the current worth of an asset or company. ...