The time value of money, or TVM, assumes a dollar in the present is worth more than a dollar in the future because of variables such as inflation and interest rates. Inflation is the general increase in prices. The value of money depreciates as time goes by as a result of a change in the general level of prices.
Changes in the price level are reflected in the interest rate. The interest rate is charged by financial institutions on loans to individuals or businesses and TVM is taken into account in setting the rate.
TVM is a very important concept in finance. It is also described as discounted cash flow (DCF). DCF is a technique used to determine the present value of a certain amount of money when received at a future date. The interest rate is used as the discounting factor. The discounting factor can be found by using a present value, or PV, table.
A PV table shows discount factors from time 0, or the current day, onward. The later money is received, the less value it has, and $1 today is worth more than $1 received at a date in the future. At time 0, the discount factor is 1, and as time goes by, the discount factor decreases. A present value calculator is used to obtain the value of $1 or any other sum of money over different time periods.
If an individual has $100 and does nothing with it, the value of that $100 declines. However, if the money is deposited in a savings account, the bank pays interest. Therefore, it is best to deposit the money in a savings account or in an asset that appreciates in value over time. A PV calculator can be used to determine the amount of money required in relation to present versus future consumption.

Why is the time value of money (TVM) an important concept to investors?
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Why would you take DCF into account rather than simply projecting future revenues?
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How do you use a financial calculator to determine present value?
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What are the disadvantages of using net present value as an investment criterion?
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When and why should the terminal value be discounted?
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Time Value of Money  TVM
The idea that money available at the present time is worth more ... 
Present Value  PV
The current worth of a future sum of money or stream of cash ... 
Discount Rate
The interest rate charged to commercial banks and other depository ... 
Net Present Value  NPV
Net Present Value (NPV) is the difference between the present ... 
Absolute Value
A business valuation method that uses discounted cash flow analysis ... 
Adjusted Present Value  APV
The Net Present Value (NPV) of a project if financed solely by ...