A:

An initial public offering (IPO) is the first sale of stock by a company. Small companies looking to further the growth of their company often use an IPO as a way to generate the capital needed to expand. Although further expansion is a benefit to the company, there are both advantages and disadvantages that arise when a company goes public.

There are many advantages for a company going public. As said earlier, the financial benefit in the form of raising capital is the most distinct advantage. Capital can be used to fund research and development, fund capital expenditure or even used to pay off existing debt. Another advantage is an increased public awareness of the company because IPOs often generate publicity by making their products known to a new group of potential customers.

Subsequently this may lead to an increase in market share for the company. An IPO also may be used by founding individuals as an exit strategy. Many venture capitalists have used IPOs to cash in on successful companies that they helped start-up.

Even with the benefits of an IPO, public companies often face many new challenges as well. One of the most important changes is the need for added disclosure for investors. Public companies are regulated by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 in regard to periodic financial reporting, which may be difficult for newer public companies. They must also meet other rules and regulations that are monitored by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). More importantly, especially for smaller companies, is the cost of complying with regulatory requirements can be very high. These costs have only increased with the advent of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Some of the additional costs include the generation of financial reporting documents, audit fees, investor relation departments and accounting oversight committees.

Public companies also are faced with the added pressure of the market which may cause them to focus more on short-term results rather than long-term growth. The actions of the company's management also become increasingly scrutinized as investors constantly look for rising profits. This may lead management to perform somewhat questionable practices in order to boost earnings.

Before deciding whether or not to go public, companies must evaluate all of the potential advantages and disadvantages that will arise. This usually will happen during the underwriting process as the company works with an investment bank to weigh the pros and cons of a public offering and determine if it is in the best interest of the company.

To learn more, see IPO Basics Tutorial, The Murky Waters Of The IPO Market, and Don't Forget To Read The Prospectus!

RELATED FAQS

  1. What are the pros and cons of downround financing?

    Read about the pros and cons of down round financing for a company that has seen its valuation decrease, and see how it impacts ...
  2. What type of companies use downround financing?

    Read about the types of companies that are most likely to rely on down round financing, and why existing shareholders don't ...
  3. What are the pros and cons of holding a non-controlling interest in a company?

    Read about the advantages and disadvantages of a non-controlling interest in a company, including large corporations and ...
  4. How do changes in capital stock illustrate the overall health of a company?

    Understand what capital stock is comprised of. Learn how changes in capital stock illustrate and provide insight into the ...
RELATED TERMS
  1. Path To Profitability (P2P)

    A clearly defined route to profitability as described in a business ...
  2. Lloyds Organizations

    An insurance syndicate that bases its organizational structure ...
  3. Roll-Up Merger

    A rollup (also known as a "roll up" or a "roll-up") ...
  4. Volcker Rule

    The Volcker rule separates investment banking, private equity ...
  5. Dog And Pony Show

    A colloquial term that generally refers to a presentation or ...
  6. Investment Bank - IB

    A financial intermediary that performs a variety of services. ...

You May Also Like

Related Articles
  1. Investing

    Effects Of Interest Rate Hikes On Private ...

  2. Investing

    Impact Investing: How it Works and How ...

  3. Personal Finance

    Top Spots to Wine and Dine Clients in ...

  4. Fundamental Analysis

    How Private Equity Dividends Work

  5. Investing

    Which is the Better Bet: Amazon or eBay?

Trading Center
×

You are using adblocking software

Want access to all of Investopedia? Add us to your “whitelist”
so you'll never miss a feature!