Amy Fontinelle

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  1. Tax Exporting

    Tax Exporting

    The raising of revenue for one jurisdiction through the levying of taxes on residents of another jurisdiction. Tax exporting means that nonresidents pay for a share of the public services they benefit ...
  2. Consumer Confidence Index
    Investing Basics

    Consumer Confidence Index

    The Consumer Confidence Index is the result of a monthly survey of 5,000 U.S. households by the Conference Board that measures how optimistic or pessimistic consumers are about the economy's current and ...
  3. Private Finance Initiative - PFI

    Private Finance Initiative - PFI

    A method of providing funds for major capital investments where private firms are contracted to complete and manage the projects. These contracts are typically given to construction firms and last a long ...
  4. Financialization


    An increase in the size and importance of a country’s financial sector relative to its overall economy. Financialization impacts both the macroeconomy and the microeconomy by changing how financial ...
  5. Unbundling


    The process of taking over a large company with several different lines of business, and then, while retaining the core business, selling off the subsidiaries to help fund the takeover.
  6. Reconciliation


    An accounting process used to compare two sets of records to ensure the figures are in agreement and are accurate. Reconciliation is the key process used to determine whether the money leaving an account ...
  7. Selling, General & Administrative Expenses (SG&A)
    Investing Basics

    Selling, General & Administrative Expenses (SG&A)

    Selling, general and administrative expenses (SG&A) are a company's total direct and indirect costs from selling its product or service as well as its total general and administrative expenses. The company ...
  8. Explaining Comparative Advantage

    Explaining Comparative Advantage

    Comparative advantage is the ability of an individual, company or country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than its competitor. Having a comparative advantage doesn't mean that ...
  9. Wealth Effect

    Wealth Effect

    The wealth effect is a psychological phenomenon that causes people to spend more as the value of their assets rises. The premise is that when consumers' homes or investment portfolios increase in value, ...
  10. Basic Concept Of Absolute Advantage

    Basic Concept Of Absolute Advantage

    Absolute advantage is the ability of an individual, country or company to produce a good or service at a lower cost than any competitor. An entity with an absolute advantage requires fewer inputs and/or ...
  11. Absolute Advantage

    Absolute Advantage

    The ability of a country, individual, company or region to produce a good or service at a lower cost per unit than the cost at which any other entity produces that good or service.
  12. Depository Trust Company - DTC

    Depository Trust Company - DTC

    One of the world's largest securities depositories, it holds in excess of US$10 trillion worth of securities in custody. The DTC acts like a clearinghouse to settle trades in corporate and municipal securities. ...
  13. The Operating Leverage And DOL
    Fundamental Analysis

    The Operating Leverage And DOL

    Operating leverage tells investors about the relationship between a company's fixed and variable costs. The higher a company's fixed costs in relation to its variable costs, the greater its operating leverage, ...
  14. Target-Date Fund

    Target-Date Fund

    A mutual fund in the hybrid category that automatically resets the asset mix (stocks, bonds, cash equivalents) in its portfolio according to a selected time frame that is appropriate for a particular investor. ...
  15. Withholding Allowance

    Withholding Allowance

    An allowance an individual claims on a W-4 Form. A withholding allowance is mainly used to assist an employer in calculating the amount of income tax to withhold from an employee's paycheck.
  16. Marginal Propensity To Consume - MPC

    Marginal Propensity To Consume - MPC

    A component of Keynesian theory, MPC represents the proportion of an aggregate raise in pay that is spent on the consumption of goods and services, as opposed to being saved.
  17. Unsystematic Risk

    Unsystematic Risk

    Company or industry specific risk that is inherent in each investment. The amount of unsystematic risk can be reduced through appropriate diversification. Also known as "specific risk," "diversifiable ...
  18. Hybrid Security

    Hybrid Security

    A security that combines two or more different financial instruments. Hybrid securities generally combine both debt and equity characteristics. The most common example is a convertible bond that has features ...
  19. Systematic Risk

    Systematic Risk

    The risk inherent to the entire market or entire market segment. Also known as "un-diversifiable risk" or "market risk."
  20. Reading The Inventory Turnover
    Fundamental Analysis

    Reading The Inventory Turnover

    Inventory turnover is a ratio that shows how quickly a company uses up its supply of goods over a given time frame. Inventory turnover may be calculated as the market value of sales divided by ending inventory, ...
  21. Law Of Supply

    Law Of Supply

    A microeconomic law stating that, all other factors being equal, as the price of a good or service increases, the quantity of goods or services offered by suppliers increases and vice versa.
  22. Law Of Demand

    Law Of Demand

    A microeconomic law that states that, all other factors being equal, as the price of a good or service increases, consumer demand for the good or service will decrease and vice versa.
  23. S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats

    S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats

    Companies that have had an increase in dividends for 25 consecutive years. The S&P Dividend Aristocrats index tracks the performance of these companies. A dividend aristocrat tends to be a large blue-chip ...
  24. The Basics Of Bond Duration
    Bonds & Fixed Income

    The Basics Of Bond Duration

    Duration tells investors the length of time it will take a bond's cash flows to repay the investor the price he or she paid for the bond. A bond's duration is stated as a number of years and tells us how ...
  25. Restricted Stock

    Restricted Stock

    Insider holdings that are under some other kind of sales restriction. Restricted stock must be traded in compliance with special SEC regulations. These regulations are outlined under Section 1244 of the ...
  26. Authorized Stock

    Authorized Stock

    The maximum number of shares that a corporation is legally permitted to issue, as specified in its articles of incorporation. This figure is usually listed in the capital accounts section of the balance ...
  27. Cash Flow From Financing Activities

    Cash Flow From Financing Activities

    A category in the cash flow statement that accounts for external activities such as issuing cash dividends, adding or changing loans, or issuing and selling more stock. The formula for cash flow from financing ...
  28. Overnight Rate

    Overnight Rate

    The interest rate at which a depository institution lends immediately available funds (balances within the central bank) to another depository institution overnight.
  29. Vesting


    The process by which employees accrue non-forfeitable rights over employer contributions that are made to the employee's qualified retirement plan account.
  30. Goodwill


    An account that can be found in the assets portion of a company's balance sheet. Goodwill can often arise when one company is purchased by another company. In an acquisition, the amount paid for the company ...
  31. Market Exposure

    Market Exposure

    The amount of funds invested in a particular type of security and/or market sector or industry and usually expressed as a percentage of total portfolio holdings. Thus, it is the amount an investor has ...
  32. Takeover


    A corporate action where an acquiring company makes a bid for an acquiree. If the target company is publicly traded, the acquiring company will make an offer for the outstanding shares.
  33. Spot Rate

    Spot Rate

    The price that is quoted for immediate settlement on a commodity, a security or a currency . Spot settlement is normally one or two business days from trade date.
  34. Net Operating Income - NOI

    Net Operating Income - NOI

    A company's operating income after operating expenses are deducted, but before income taxes and interest are deducted. If this is a positive value, it is referred to as net operating income, while a negative ...
  35. What is the Dodd-Frank Act? How does it affect me?

    What is the Dodd-Frank Act? How does it affect me?

    The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act is a massive piece of financial reform legislation passed by the Obama administration in 2010 as a response to the financial crisis of 2008. ...
  36. If I don't have any kids and want to leave all of my worldly ...
    Personal Finance

    If I don't have any kids and want to leave all of my worldly ...

    A 1993 law, Section 2-907 of the Uniform Probate Code, changed the treatment of a deceased individual's pet from that of a piece of property to an entity that requires care. As a result, it is possible ...
  37. I want to invest my emergency fund to earn interest. What ...

    I want to invest my emergency fund to earn interest. What ...

    When considering where to put your emergency money, a key consideration is making sure you'll be able to access the money quickly, easily and without penalty, when you need it. Financial professionals ...
  38. Funds From Operations (FFO) To Total Debt Ratio

    Funds From Operations (FFO) To Total Debt Ratio

    A leverage ratio that a credit rating agency or an investor can use to evaluate a company’s financial risk. FFO to total debt is a metric comparing earnings from net operating income plus depreciation, ...
  39. Qualified Mortgage

    Qualified Mortgage

    A mortgage in which the lender has analyzed the borrower's ability to repay based on income, assets and debts; has not allowed the borrower to take on monthly debt payments in excess of 43% of pre-tax ...
  40. Bond Yields: Current Yield And YTM
    Bonds & Fixed Income

    Bond Yields: Current Yield And YTM

    A bond's current yield, also called "bond yield," is the interest it pays annually divided by the bond's price. A stock's current yield, also called "dividend yield," is the sum of its annual dividends ...
  41. Bubblecovery


    A condition in which the economy appears to be coming back from a recession, but may actually be entering an asset bubble masquerading as a recovery because of the ease of obtaining inexpensive loans to ...
  42. What Is Collateral?
    Credit & Loans

    What Is Collateral?

    Collateral is property or other assets that a borrower offers a lender to secure a loan. If the borrower stops making the promised loan payments, the lender can seize the collateral to recoup its losses.
  43. Cash Accounting

    Cash Accounting

    An accounting method where receipts are recorded during the period they are received, and expenses are recorded in the period in which they are actually paid.
  44. Cash Flow From Operating Activities (CFO)

    Cash Flow From Operating Activities (CFO)

    An accounting item indicating the cash a company brings in from ongoing, regular business activities. Cash flow from operating activities does not include long-term capital or investment costs. It can ...
  45. Articles Of Incorporation

    Articles Of Incorporation

    A set of documents filed with a government body to legally document the creation of a corporation. Also referred to as the "corporate charter."
  46. Ticker Tape

    Ticker Tape

    A computerized device that relays financial information to investors around the world, including the stock symbol, the latest price and the volume on securities as they are traded.
  47. Deed Of Surrender

    Deed Of Surrender

    A legal document that transfers property ownership for a specified time period, provided certain conditions are met. This allows someone to relinquish his/her claims on a particular property to the individual ...
  48. Operating Activities

    Operating Activities

    A company's typical daily processes that generate income. Operating activities are those that pertain to a company's core business activities, such as manufacturing, distributing, marketing and selling ...
  49. Constant Dollar

    Constant Dollar

    An adjusted value of currency used to compare dollar values from one period to another. Due to inflation, the purchasing power of the dollar changes over time, so in order to compare dollar values from ...
  50. Money Market Fund

    Money Market Fund

    An investment fund that holds the objective to earn interest for shareholders while maintaining a net asset value (NAV) of $1 per share. Mutual funds, brokerage firms and banks offer these funds. Portfolios ...
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