Financial Ratios - Dilutive Securities

Dilutive Securities are securities that are not common stock in form, but allow the owner to obtain common stock upon exercise of an option or a conversion privilege. The most common examples of dilutive securities are: stock options, warrants, convertible debt and convertible preferred stock. These securities would decrease EPS if exercised or if they were converted common stock. In other words, a dilutive security is any securities that could increase the weighted number of shares outstanding.

If a security after conversion causes the EPS figure to increase rather than decrease, such a security is an anti-dilutive security, and it should be excluded from the computation of the dilutive EPS.

For example, assume that the company XYZ has a convertible bond issue: 100 bonds, $1,000 par value, yielding 10%, issued at par for the total of $100,000. Each bond can be converted into 50 shares of the common stock. The tax rate is 30%. XYZ's weighted average number of shares, used to compute basic EPS, is 10,000. XYZ reported an NI of $12,000, and paid preferred dividends of $2,000.

What is the basic EPS? What is the diluted EPS?

1) Compute basic EPS:
i. Basic EPS = (12,000 - 2,000) / (10,000) = $1.00

2) Compute diluted EPS:
i. Find the adjustment to the denominator: 100 * 50 = 5,000
ii. Find the adjustment to the numerator: 100 * $1000 * 0.1 * (1 - 0.3) = $7,000

3) Find diluted EPS:
i. Diluted EPS = (12,000 - 2,000 + 7,000) / 10,000 + 5,000 = $1.13

If the fully dilused EPS > basic EPS, then the security is antidilutive. In this case, Basic EPS = $1.00 is less than the fully diluted ESP, and the security is antidilutive.

Calculating Basic and Fully Diluted EPS in a Complex Capital Structure
Related Articles
  1. Financial Advisors

    Putting Your CFA Level I on Your Resume

    Learn techniques for emphasizing your CFA Level I status in the Skills and Certifications or Professional Development section of your resume.
  2. Professionals

    Investment Analyst: Career Path and Qualifications

    Learn how to prepare for a career as an investment analyst, and read more about how many professionals in the field progress during their careers.
  3. Professionals

    CAIA Vs. CFA: How Are They Different?

    Find out how the CAIA and CFA designations differ, including which professionals should seek either title based on their career ambitions.
  4. Professionals

    Equity Investments: CFA Level II Tutorial

    Chapter 1: Equity Valuation: Its Applications and Processes Chapter 2: Return Concepts for Equity Valuation Chapter 3: Industry Analysis With Porter's 5 Forces
  5. Professionals

    What To Expect On The CFA Level III Exam

    The Chartered Financial Analyst Level III exam, which is only offered in June, is the last in the series of three tests that CFA candidates must pass.
  6. Professionals

    What To Expect On The CFA Level I Exam

    Becoming a chartered financial analyst requires the passing of three grueling exams covering an array of topics.
  7. Options & Futures

    The Alphabet Soup of Financial Certifications

    We decode the meaning of the many letters that can follow the names of financial professionals.
  8. Professionals

    How to Ace the CFA Level I Exam

    Prepare to ace the CFA Level 1 exam by studying systematically.
  9. Personal Finance

    How To Choose A Financial Advisor

    Many advisors display similar skillsets that can make distinguishing between them difficult. The following guidelines can help you better understand their qualifications and services.
  10. Investing

    Asset Manager Ethics: Investment Process and Actions

    Managers, in developing their investment process, need to determine some “general rules” that make it meaningful. We offer six.
  1. Personal Financial Advisor

    Professionals who help individuals manage their finances by providing ...
  2. CFA Institute

    Formerly known as the Association for Investment Management and ...
  3. Chartered Financial Analyst - CFA

    A professional designation given by the CFA Institute (formerly ...
  4. Security Analyst

    A financial professional who studies various industries and companies, ...
  1. What are the differences between a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) and a Certified ...

    The differences between a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) and a Certified Financial Planner (CFP) are many, but comes down ... Read Full Answer >>
  2. How do I become a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA)?

    According to the CFA Institute, a person who holds a CFA charter is not a chartered financial analyst. The CFA Institute ... Read Full Answer >>
  3. What types of positions might a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) hold?

    The types of positions that a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) is likely to hold include any position that deals with large ... Read Full Answer >>
  4. Who benefits the most from prepaid expenses?

    Prepaid expenses benefit both businesses and individuals. Prepaid expenses are the types of expenses that are bought or paid ... Read Full Answer >>
  5. If I am looking to get an Investment Banking job. What education do employers prefer? ...

    If you are looking specifically for an investment banking position, an MBA may be marginally preferable over the CFA. The ... Read Full Answer >>
  6. Can I still pass the CFA Level I if I do poorly in the ethics section?

    You may still pass the Chartered Financial Analysis (CFA) Level I even if you fare poorly in the ethics section, but don't ... Read Full Answer >>
Hot Definitions
  1. Barefoot Pilgrim

    A slang term for an unsophisticated investor who loses all of his or her wealth by trading equities in the stock market. ...
  2. Quick Ratio

    The quick ratio is an indicator of a company’s short-term liquidity. The quick ratio measures a company’s ability to meet ...
  3. Black Tuesday

    October 29, 1929, when the DJIA fell 12% - one of the largest one-day drops in stock market history. More than 16 million ...
  4. Black Monday

    October 19, 1987, when the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) lost almost 22% in a single day. That event marked the beginning ...
  5. Monetary Policy

    Monetary policy is the actions of a central bank, currency board or other regulatory committee that determine the size and ...
  6. Indemnity

    Indemnity is compensation for damages or loss. Indemnity in the legal sense may also refer to an exemption from liability ...
Trading Center