Financial Statements - Income Statement Components

Income Statement Format
The following figure demonstrates which components are used to calculate a company's net income, which is the income available to shareholders.

Figure 6.4: How Net Income is Derived on the Income Statement

The Components of Net Income:

  • Operating income from continuing operations - This comprises all revenues net of returns, allowances and discounts, less the cost and expenses related to the generation of these revenues. The costs deducted from revenues are typically the COGS and SG&A expenses.
  • Recurring income before interest and taxes from continuing operations - This component includes, in addition to operating income from continuing operations, all other income, such as investment income from unconsolidated subsidiaries and/or other investments and gains (or losses) from the sale of assets. To be included in this category, these items must be recurring in nature. This component is generally considered to be the best predictor of future earning. That said, it does assume that noncash expenses such as depreciation and amortization are a good indicator of future capital expenditures. Since this component does not take into account the capital structure of the company (use of debt), it is also used to value similar companies.
  • Recurring (pre-tax) income from continuing operations - This component takes the company's financial structure into consideration as it deducts interest expenses.
  • Pre-tax earning from continuing operations - This component considers all unusual or infrequent items. Included in this category are items that are either unusual or infrequent in nature but cannot be both. Examples are an employee-separation cost, plant shutdown, impairments, write-offs, write-downs, integration expenses, etc.
  • Net income from continuing operations - This component takes into account the impact of taxes from continuing operations.

Non-Recurring Items
Discontinued operations, extraordinary items and accounting changes are all reported as separate items in the income statement. They are all reported net of taxes and below the tax line, and are not included in income from continuing operations. In some cases, earlier income statements and balance sheets have to be adjusted to reflect changes.

  • Income (or expense) from discontinued operations - This component is related to income (or expense) generated due to the shutdown of one or more divisions or operations (plants). These events need to be isolated so they do not inflate or deflate the company's future earning potential. This type of nonrecurring occurrence also has a nonrecurring tax implication and, as a result of the tax implication, should not be included in the income tax expense used to calculate net income from continuing operations. That is why this income (or expense) is always reported net of taxes. The same is true for extraordinary items and cumulative effect of accounting changes (see below).
  • Extraordinary items - This component relates to items that are both unusual and infrequent in nature. That means it is a one-time gain or loss that is not expected to occur in the future. An example is environmental remediation.
  • Cumulative effect of accounting changes - This item is generally related to changes in accounting policies or estimations. In most cases, these are non cash-related expenses but could have an effect on taxes.
Income Statement: Non-recurring Items
Related Articles
  1. Financial Advisors

    Putting Your CFA Level I on Your Resume

    Learn techniques for emphasizing your CFA Level I status in the Skills and Certifications or Professional Development section of your resume.
  2. Professionals

    Investment Analyst: Career Path and Qualifications

    Learn how to prepare for a career as an investment analyst, and read more about how many professionals in the field progress during their careers.
  3. Professionals

    CAIA Vs. CFA: How Are They Different?

    Find out how the CAIA and CFA designations differ, including which professionals should seek either title based on their career ambitions.
  4. Professionals

    Equity Investments: CFA Level II Tutorial

    Chapter 1: Equity Valuation: Its Applications and Processes Chapter 2: Return Concepts for Equity Valuation Chapter 3: Industry Analysis With Porter's 5 Forces
  5. Professionals

    What To Expect On The CFA Level III Exam

    The Chartered Financial Analyst Level III exam, which is only offered in June, is the last in the series of three tests that CFA candidates must pass.
  6. Professionals

    What To Expect On The CFA Level I Exam

    Becoming a chartered financial analyst requires the passing of three grueling exams covering an array of topics.
  7. Options & Futures

    The Alphabet Soup of Financial Certifications

    We decode the meaning of the many letters that can follow the names of financial professionals.
  8. Professionals

    How to Ace the CFA Level I Exam

    Prepare to ace the CFA Level 1 exam by studying systematically.
  9. Personal Finance

    How To Choose A Financial Advisor

    Many advisors display similar skillsets that can make distinguishing between them difficult. The following guidelines can help you better understand their qualifications and services.
  10. Investing

    Asset Manager Ethics: Investment Process and Actions

    Managers, in developing their investment process, need to determine some “general rules” that make it meaningful. We offer six.
  1. Personal Financial Advisor

    Professionals who help individuals manage their finances by providing ...
  2. CFA Institute

    Formerly known as the Association for Investment Management and ...
  3. Chartered Financial Analyst - CFA

    A professional designation given by the CFA Institute (formerly ...
  4. Security Analyst

    A financial professional who studies various industries and companies, ...
  1. What are the differences between a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) and a Certified ...

    The differences between a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) and a Certified Financial Planner (CFP) are many, but comes down ... Read Full Answer >>
  2. How do I become a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA)?

    According to the CFA Institute, a person who holds a CFA charter is not a chartered financial analyst. The CFA Institute ... Read Full Answer >>
  3. What types of positions might a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) hold?

    The types of positions that a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) is likely to hold include any position that deals with large ... Read Full Answer >>
  4. Who benefits the most from prepaid expenses?

    Prepaid expenses benefit both businesses and individuals. Prepaid expenses are the types of expenses that are bought or paid ... Read Full Answer >>
  5. If I am looking to get an Investment Banking job. What education do employers prefer? ...

    If you are looking specifically for an investment banking position, an MBA may be marginally preferable over the CFA. The ... Read Full Answer >>
  6. Can I still pass the CFA Level I if I do poorly in the ethics section?

    You may still pass the Chartered Financial Analysis (CFA) Level I even if you fare poorly in the ethics section, but don't ... Read Full Answer >>
Hot Definitions
  1. Barefoot Pilgrim

    A slang term for an unsophisticated investor who loses all of his or her wealth by trading equities in the stock market. ...
  2. Quick Ratio

    The quick ratio is an indicator of a company’s short-term liquidity. The quick ratio measures a company’s ability to meet ...
  3. Black Tuesday

    October 29, 1929, when the DJIA fell 12% - one of the largest one-day drops in stock market history. More than 16 million ...
  4. Black Monday

    October 19, 1987, when the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) lost almost 22% in a single day. That event marked the beginning ...
  5. Monetary Policy

    Monetary policy is the actions of a central bank, currency board or other regulatory committee that determine the size and ...
  6. Indemnity

    Indemnity is compensation for damages or loss. Indemnity in the legal sense may also refer to an exemption from liability ...
Trading Center