Macroeconomics - Aggregate Supply & Aggregate Demand

The Aggregate Supply Curve
The aggregate supply curve shows the relationship between a nation's overall price level, and the quantity of goods and services produces by that nation's suppliers. The curve is upward sloping in the short run and vertical, or close to vertical, in the long run.

Net investment, technology changes that yield productivity improvements, and positive institutional changes can increase both short-run and long-run aggregate supply. Institutional changes, such as the provision of public goods at low cost, increase economic efficiency and cause aggregate supply curves to shift to the right.

Some changes can alter short-run aggregate supply (SAS), while long-run aggregate supply (LAS) remains the same. Examples include:

  • Supply Shocks - Supply shocks are sudden surprise events that increase or decrease output on a temporary basis. Examples include unusually bad or good weather or the impact from surprise military actions.
  • Resource Price Changes - These, too, can alter SAS. Unless the price changes reflect differences in long-term supply, the LAS is not affected.
  • Changes in Expectations for Inflation - If suppliers expect goods to sell at much higher prices in the future, their willingness to sell in the current time period will be reduced and the SAS will shift to the left.

The Aggregate Demand Curve
The aggregate demand curve shows, at various price levels, the quantity of goods and services produced domestically that consumers, businesses, governments and foreigners (net exports) are willing to purchase during the period of concern. The curve slopes downward to the right, indicating that as price levels decrease (increase), more (less) goods and services are demanded.

Factors that can shift an aggregate demand curve include:

  • Real Interest Rate Changes - Such changes will impact capital goods decisions made by individual consumers and by businesses. Lower real interest rates will lower the costs of major products such as cars, large appliances and houses; they will increase business capital project spending because long-term costs of investment projects are reduced. The aggregate demand curve will shift down and to the right. Higher real interest rates will make capital goods relatively more expensive and cause the aggregate demand curve to shift up and to the left.
  • Changes in Expectations - If businesses and households are more optimistic about the future of the economy, they are more likely to buy large items and make new investments; this will increase aggregate demand.
  • The Wealth Effect - If real household wealth increases (decreases), then aggregate demand will increase (decrease)
  • Changes in Income of Foreigners - If the income of foreigners increases (decreases), then aggregate demand for domestically-produced goods and services should increase (decrease).
  • Changes in Currency Exchange Rates - From the viewpoint of the U.S., if the value of the U.S. dollar falls (rises), foreign goods will become more (less) expensive, while goods produced in the U.S. will become cheaper (more expensive) to foreigners. The net result will be an increase (decrease) in aggregate demand.
  • Inflation Expectation Changes - If consumers expect inflation to go up in the future, they will tend to buy now causing aggregate demand to increase. If consumers' expectations shift so that they expect prices to decline in the future, t aggregate demand will decline and the aggregate demand curve will shift up and to the left.
Short and Long-run Macroeconomic Equilibrium
Related Articles
  1. Financial Advisors

    Tips on Passing the CFA Level I on Your First Attempt

    Obtain valuable tips and helpful study instructions that can help you pass the Level 1 Chartered Financial Analyst exam on your first attempt.
  2. Financial Advisors

    Putting Your CFA Level I on Your Resume

    Learn techniques for emphasizing your CFA Level I status in the Skills and Certifications or Professional Development section of your resume.
  3. Professionals

    Investment Analyst: Career Path and Qualifications

    Learn how to prepare for a career as an investment analyst, and read more about how many professionals in the field progress during their careers.
  4. Professionals

    CAIA Vs. CFA: How Are They Different?

    Find out how the CAIA and CFA designations differ, including which professionals should seek either title based on their career ambitions.
  5. Professionals

    Equity Investments: CFA Level II Tutorial

    Chapter 1: Equity Valuation: Its Applications and Processes Chapter 2: Return Concepts for Equity Valuation Chapter 3: Industry Analysis With Porter's 5 Forces
  6. Professionals

    What To Expect On The CFA Level III Exam

    The Chartered Financial Analyst Level III exam, which is only offered in June, is the last in the series of three tests that CFA candidates must pass.
  7. Professionals

    What To Expect On The CFA Level I Exam

    Becoming a chartered financial analyst requires the passing of three grueling exams covering an array of topics.
  8. Options & Futures

    The Alphabet Soup of Financial Certifications

    We decode the meaning of the many letters that can follow the names of financial professionals.
  9. Professionals

    How to Ace the CFA Level I Exam

    Prepare to ace the CFA Level 1 exam by studying systematically.
  10. Personal Finance

    How To Choose A Financial Advisor

    Many advisors display similar skillsets that can make distinguishing between them difficult. The following guidelines can help you better understand their qualifications and services.
  1. Personal Financial Advisor

    Professionals who help individuals manage their finances by providing ...
  2. CFA Institute

    Formerly known as the Association for Investment Management and ...
  3. Chartered Financial Analyst - CFA

    A professional designation given by the CFA Institute (formerly ...
  4. Security Analyst

    A financial professional who studies various industries and companies, ...
  1. What are the differences between a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) and a Certified ...

    The differences between a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) and a Certified Financial Planner (CFP) are many, but comes down ... Read Full Answer >>
  2. How do I become a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA)?

    According to the CFA Institute, a person who holds a CFA charter is not a chartered financial analyst. The CFA Institute ... Read Full Answer >>
  3. What types of positions might a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) hold?

    The types of positions that a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) is likely to hold include any position that deals with large ... Read Full Answer >>
  4. Who benefits the most from prepaid expenses?

    Prepaid expenses benefit both businesses and individuals. Prepaid expenses are the types of expenses that are bought or paid ... Read Full Answer >>
  5. If I am looking to get an Investment Banking job. What education do employers prefer? ...

    If you are looking specifically for an investment banking position, an MBA may be marginally preferable over the CFA. The ... Read Full Answer >>
  6. Can I still pass the CFA Level I if I do poorly in the ethics section?

    You may still pass the Chartered Financial Analysis (CFA) Level I even if you fare poorly in the ethics section, but don't ... Read Full Answer >>
Hot Definitions
  1. Black Friday

    1. A day of stock market catastrophe. Originally, September 24, 1869, was deemed Black Friday. The crash was sparked by gold ...
  2. Turkey

    Slang for an investment that yields disappointing results or turns out worse than expected. Failed business deals, securities ...
  3. Barefoot Pilgrim

    A slang term for an unsophisticated investor who loses all of his or her wealth by trading equities in the stock market. ...
  4. Quick Ratio

    The quick ratio is an indicator of a company’s short-term liquidity. The quick ratio measures a company’s ability to meet ...
  5. Black Tuesday

    October 29, 1929, when the DJIA fell 12% - one of the largest one-day drops in stock market history. More than 16 million ...
  6. Black Monday

    October 19, 1987, when the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) lost almost 22% in a single day. That event marked the beginning ...
Trading Center