Quantitative Methods  Calculating Yield
Calculating Yield for a
A U.S. Treasury bill is the classic example of a pure discount instrument, where the interest the government pays is the difference between the amount it promises to pay back at maturity (the face value) and the amount it borrowed when issuing the Tbill (the discount). Tbills are shortterm debt instruments (by definition, they have less than one year to maturity), and there is zero default risk with a
Formula 2.10 R_{BD} = D/F * 360/t
Where: D = dollar discount from face value, F = face value, 
By bank convention, years are 360 days long, not 365. If you recall the joke about banker's hours being shorter than regular business hours, you should remember that banker's years are also shorter.
For example, if a Tbill has a face value of $50,000, a current market price of $49,700 and a maturity in 100 days, we have:
R_{BD} = D/F * 360/t = ($50,000$49,700)/$50000 * 360/100 = 300/50000 * 3.6 = 2.16%
On the exam, you may be asked to compute the market price, given a quoted yield, which can be accomplish by using the same formula and solving for D:
Formula 2.11 D = R_{BD}*F * t/360 
Example:
Using the previous example, if we have a bank discount yield of 2.16%, a face value of $50,000 and days to maturity of 100, then we calculate D as follows:
D = (0.0216)*(50000)*(100/360) = 300
Market price = F  D = 50,000  300 = $49,700
HoldingPeriod Yield (HPY)
HPY refers to the unannualized rate of return one receives for holding a debt instrument until maturity. The formula is essentially the same as the concept of holdingperiod return needed to compute timeweighted performance. The HPY computation provides for one cash distribution or interest payment to be made at the time of maturity, a term that can be omitted for
Formula 2.12 HPY = (P_{1}  P_{0} + D_{1})/P_{0} Where: P_{0} = purchase price, P_{1 }= price at maturity, and D_{1}= cash distribution at maturity 
Example:
Taking the data from the previous example, we illustrate the calculation of HPY:
HPY = (P_{1}  P_{0} + D_{1})/P_{0 }= (50000  49700 + 0)/49700 = 300/49700 = 0.006036 or 0.6036%
Effective annual yield (EAY)
EAY takes the HPY and annualizes the number to facilitate comparability with other investments. It uses the same logic presented earlier when describing how to annualize a compounded return number: (1) add 1 to the HPY return, (2) compound forward to one year by carrying to the 365/t power, where t is days to maturity, and (3) subtract 1.
Here it is expressed as a formula:
Formula 2.13 EAY = (1 + HPY)^{365/t}  1 
Example:
Continuing with our example Tbill, we have:
EAY = (1 + HPY)^{365/t}  1 = (1 + 0.006036)^{365/100}  1 = 2.22 percent.
Remember that EAY > bank discount yield, for three reasons: (a) yield is based on purchase price, not face value, (b) it is annualized with compound interest (interest on interest), not simple interest, and (c) it is based on a 365day year rather than 360 days. Be prepared to compare these two measures of yield and use these three reasons to explain why EAY is preferable.
The third measure of yield is the money market yield, also known as the CD equivalent yield, and is denoted by r_{MM}. This yield measure can be calculated in two ways:
1. When the HPY is given, r_{MM }is the annualized yield based on a 360day year:
Formula 2.14 r_{MM }= (HPY)*(360/t) Where: t = days to maturity 
For our example, we computed HPY = 0.6036%, thus the money market yield is:
r_{MM }= (HPY)*(360/t) = (0.6036)*(360/100) = 2.173%.
2. When bond price is unknown, bank discount yield can be used to compute the money market yield, using this expression:
Formula 2.15
r_{MM }= (360* r_{BD})/(360  (t* r_{BD}) 
Using our case:
r_{MM }= (360* r_{BD})/(360  (t* r_{BD}) = (360*0.0216)/(360  (100*0.0216)) = 2.1735%, which is identical to the result at which we arrived using HPY.
Interpreting Yield
This involves essentially nothing more than algebra: solve for the unknown and plug in the known quantities. You must be able to use these formulas to find yields expressed one way when the provided yield number is expressed another way.
Since HPY is common to the two others (EAY and MM yield), know how to solve for HPY to answer a question.
Effective Annual Yield  EAY = (1 + HPY)^{365/t}  1  HPY = (1 + EAY)^{t/365 } 1 
Money Market Yield  r_{MM} = (HPY)*(360/t)  HPY = r_{MM} * (t/360) 
Bond Equivalent Yield
The bond equivalent yield is simply the yield stated on a semiannual basis multiplied by 2. Thus, if you are given a semiannual yield of 3% and asked for the bond equivalent yield, the answer is 6%.

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