- Geometric Average/Arithmetic Average - These are both measures of central tendency.
- Geometric Average: the average compounded return. The formula is expressed as follows:
- Arithmetic Average
AM = ?HPRt/n
Geometric Average - Geometric average is always less than the arithmetic mean, except when returns are equal for each period. Then, the geometric and arithmetic averages would be equal. This average is the same as the internal rate of return (IRR).
Arithmetic Average - does not take into account the compounding effects of returns. It is good for approximating the earning rate over time, but will tend to be less accurate if returns fluctuate widely from year to year.
- Time-Weighted Return/Dollar - Weighted Return:
- Time-Weighted Return: a measure of the performance of an investment over time without regard to cash flows in either direction. This is the preferred return measure that planners use, as it strips out the bias that cash flows create with a dollar-weighted return.
- Dollar-Weighted Return: a measure of performance of an investment over time, only here cash flows figure into the return calculation, giving effect to inflows and outflows of money.
Measures of Investment Return (Contd.)
Managing WealthUnderstanding portfolio performance, whether for a self-managed, discretionary portfolio or a non-discretionary portfolio, is vital to determining whether the portfolio strategy is working or ...
InvestingThe average of a set of products, the calculation of which is commonly used to determine the performance results of an investment or portfolio.
MarketsThe compound annual growth rate, or CAGR for short, represents one of the most accurate ways to calculate and determine returns for individual assets, investment portfolios and anything that ...
TradingThe arithmetic mean is the average of a sum of numbers.
MarketsTime-weighted rate of return measures the performance of an investment portfolio by taking a single investment and measuring its growth or loss at the end of a time period.
InvestingHow much are your investments actually returning? Find out why the method of calculation matters.
InvestingCalculate returns frequently and accurately to ensure that you're meeting your investing goals.
InvestingThe annualized total return is the average return of an investment each year over a given time period.
InvestingThe expected return is a tool used to determine whether or not an investment has a positive or negative average net outcome.
Managing WealthThe Jensen measure is another tool investors use to include risk when measuring portfolio performance.