
Stocks and Mutual Funds  Common Stock Valuation Methods
There are two basic approaches to valuing common stock. The first is the fundamental approach, which looks at the actual financial status of the corporation, such as the financial statements we studied in the Quantitative Methods section. The second is the technical approach, which relies on charts and patterns to forecast future stock movements.
 Fundamental analysis
This approach focuses on factors such as:
 Experience of the company's management
 Overall outlook for the industry sector
 Current and pipeline product lines of the company
 Market share
 Balance sheet and income statement
The fundamental analyst tries to assess whether a company's stock is undervalued or overvalued based on its business prospects.
 The dividend discount model (DDM) is a tool used by fundamental analysts to calculate what the market price of a stock should be.
 DDM uses a present value calculation based on a stock's estimated future dividends.
 The stock is considered undervalued if the market price is less than this calculated amount.
 One difficulty of using this model is that projected future dividends may be higher or lower than those that actually occur over time.
The dividend discount model is one of the oldest and most conservative methods of stock valuation. The article Digging Deeper Into the Dividend Discount Model examines the assumptions underlying the DDM.
 Technical analysis
This approach relies on charts and patterns to project the future movements of a particular stock or market index. These are the major measures used by technical analysts:
 Volume  the number of shares trading is considered a signal of strength or weakness. For example, if a stock price increases on strong volume, this is considered more significant than a price increase on weak volume.
 Advance/Decline Ratio  this measures the overall health or "breadth" of the market by comparing the number of issues that increased in price against the number that decreased in price.
 Support and Resistance  this refers to the levels where a stock price comes under pressure. The support level is the "bottom" line in a typical chart, while the resistance level is the "top" line. The following charts illustrate the support and resistance lines for typical stock charts.
Figure 9.1: Support 
Figure 9.2: Resistance 
See the Technical Analysis tutorial for an easytounderstand outlook on the various tools used in technical analysis, including moving averages, relative strength index (RSI), Bollinger bands, stock chart patterns and much more.
Here are two sample exam questions on stock valuation:
 Those who predict stock values based on calculations of the present value of future dividends are using which stock valuation tool?
 Technical analysis
 Dividend correlation model
 Dividend discount model
 Expected return model
The correct answer is "c".
 Using technical analysis, if XYZ stock is trading near its resistance price, it is said to be:
 Oversold
 Overbought
 Head and shoulders
 Inverse
The correct answer is "b". If the stock were trading near its support price, it would be described as oversold.

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What does the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) show an investor about a company?
Discover the purpose of the dividend discount model, or DDM, of stock analysis and what it specifically aims to evaluate ... Read Answer >> 
What are the drawbacks of using the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) to value a stock?
Understand how the dividend discount model works, and learn some of the inherent flaws in the model that make it suspect ... Read Answer >> 
How can I use the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) effectively for a stock with fluctuating ...
Find out how the dividend discount model is applied to stocks with irregular dividend payments and how firms with irregular ... Read Answer >> 
When can I use the Dividend Discount Method (DDM) to value a stock?
Learn about the dividend discount model and when it can most appropriately be used to measure the value of a stock by fundamental ... Read Answer >> 
How do I find the information needed for input into the Dividend Discount Model (DDM)?
Learn where analysts and investors can find the three pieces of necessary information that allow them to calculate the dividend ... Read Answer >> 
How is perpetuity used in the Dividend Discount Model?
Learn about how the concept of a stock perpetuity is used in the basic dividend discount model, which is also known as the ... Read Answer >>