Fundamentals

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  1. What due diligence steps should an investor undertake before each investment?

    Learn about the steps to completing vigorous due diligence when selecting an investment, including ownership by management, ...
  2. What is the difference between operating income and revenue?

    Understand the definitions of revenue and operating income, how they are calculated and interpreted, and how operating income ...
  3. What is liquidity management?

    Take a look at the different definitions of liquidity, and find out how investors and businesses attempt to reduce exposure ...
  4. What is the difference between gross margin and gross profit?

    Understand the difference in definitions between gross margin and gross profit, and learn what each represents as a metric ...
  5. When do companies publish P&L statements?

    Understand what a company's P&L statement represents, and find out when companies traditionally publish these statements.
  6. What is the difference between market capitalization and enterprise value?

    Understand the basics of market capitalization and enterprise value, how they measure company value and how they differ in ...
  7. What is the difference between operating income and operating profit?

    Find out why operating margin and operating income can be treated synonymously with EBIT, but how they all differ from operating ...
  8. What is the difference between operating income and EBITDA?

    Read about the major differences between earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) and operating ...
  9. What is the difference between operating income and gross profit?

    Learn more about the difference between operating income and gross profit, two accounting figures that appear on a company's ...
  10. How do you use the price-to-book ratio to evaluate a company's value?

    Understand how investors and market analysts use the price-to-book ratio to evaluate the worth of a company and why this ...
  11. What are the best metrics to evaluate a telecommunication company?

    Use fundamental analysis and three specific metrics to evaluate telecommunications companies to find the best one for your ...
  12. Is there a downside to having a high liquidity ratio?

    Find out why it might be disadvantageous for a company to have liquidity ratios that are too high, and learn how to find ...
  13. What is the difference between revenue and cost in gross margin?

    Discover the differences between revenue and cost in gross margin, along with an explanation of various measures of profitability.
  14. What is the difference between gross margin and net margin?

    Learn the basics of gross profit margin and net profit margin, including how each is calculated and interpreted as a metric ...
  15. What is the difference between gross margin and contribution margin?

    Understand the difference between the gross margin and the contribution margin, including how they differ in calculation ...
  16. What is the difference between gross margin and operating margin?

    Understand the difference between gross margin and operating margin in relation to evaluating a company's overall profitability ...
  17. What is the difference between market capitalization and shares outstanding?

    Understand the relationship between shares outstanding and market capitalization and how market cap is interpreted to establish ...
  18. How do you find a company's P&L statement?

    Learn how to find a company's profit and loss statement, along with the other financial statements that companies regularly ...
  19. How do you read a P&L statement?

    Understand the basics of reading a profit and loss statement, including key concepts such as revenue, net operating income, ...
  20. What is the difference between market capitalization and market value?

    Understand the difference between market capitalization and market value, including the elements used for the calculation ...
  21. What is the difference between market capitalization and equity?

    Understand the difference between market capitalization and equity, two primary measurements used to evaluate the worth of ...
  22. What is the difference between markup and gross margin?

    Read more about the key differences between a company's gross margin and its pricing markup, two rough indicators of business ...
  23. What's an example of a P&L statement?

    Understand the basic components of a P&L statement, and how these components are presented in compiling this fundamental ...
  24. What is the difference between gross margin and profit margin?

    Understand the difference between gross margin and profit margin, and learn about the profitability ratios used in evaluating ...
  25. Is debt/equity a good metric to use when analyzing utility stocks?

    Dig deeper into the unique relationship between debt and equity for a utility company, and how its debt-equity ratio should ...
  26. What is the most widely used gearing ratio?

    Understand the most commonly used gearing, or leverage, ratio used to evaluate a company's financial condition, the debt ...
  27. How can I tell if a utility will be able to pay off its debt?

    Take a deeper look at the use of debt financing within the utilities sector, and learn about some ways that investors can ...
  28. Why do companies publish P&L statements?

    Understand the basics of the profit and loss statement, including why it is published and how it is used to assess financial ...
  29. How should a company budget for capital expenditures?

    Learn the difference between capital expenditures and operational expenses, and discover the importance of budgeting for ...
  30. For a company, is it more important to lower costs or increase revenue?

    Examine the question of whether a company's desire for increased profitability is better served by focusing on cutting costs ...
  31. What is the first day of the third quarter?

    Learn when the first day of the third quarter begins. Explore how reported financial results may have a profound impact on ...
  32. What role does discounted cash flow (DCF) play in stock valuation?

    Understand the meaning and significance of discounted cash flow, and learn how market analysts commonly use this stock evaluation ...
  33. What is the difference between revenue and sales?

    Learn to distinguish between a company's revenue and its sales, and see why the distinction is important when analyzing a ...
  34. What is the difference between revenue and profit?

    Understand the difference between revenue and profit, two key concepts in business accounting, including where each can be ...
  35. What is liquidity risk?

    Learn how to distinguish between the two broad types of financial liquidity risk: funding liquidity risk and market liquidity ...
  36. What is a bad interest coverage ratio?

    Understand how interest coverage ratio is calculated and what it signifies, and learn what market analysts consider to be ...
  37. What is a good gearing ratio?

    Understand the meaning of the gearing ratio, how it is calculated, the definition of high and low gearing, and how they reflect ...
  38. What is a good interest coverage ratio?

    Learn the importance of the interest coverage ratio, one of the primary debt ratios analysts use to evaluate a company's ...
  39. What does the gearing ratio say about risk?

    Find out why lenders and investors pay close attention to a firm's gearing ratios, and why both too much and too little borrowing ...
  40. What is considered to be a bad gearing ratio?

    Understand the basics of gearing, including the net gearing ratio, what constitutes a bad gearing ratio and how this figure ...
  41. What is the difference between a capital gearing ratio and a net gearing ratio?

    Understand the definition of gearing in the finance industry, the difference between net gearing and capital gearing ratios ...
  42. What is the difference between the gearing ratio and the debt-to-equity ratio?

    Dive deeper into gearing ratios: what are they, how are they used and why the debt to equity ratio is one of the most popular ...
  43. What is the difference between interest coverage ratio and TIE?

    Read about the times interest earned, also known as the interest coverage ratio. Find out why this is an important ratio ...
  44. What is the difference between interest coverage ratio and DSCR?

    Understand the basics of the interest coverage ratio and the debt-service coverage ratio, including calculations and how ...
  45. What is accrual accounting used for in finance?

    Read about the accrual method of accounting, its uses and rules, and why it is considered so important for investors, lenders ...
  46. What is the difference between accrual accounting and cash accounting?

    Understand the differences between the two basic methods of accounting commonly used by businesses: cash accounting and accrual ...
  47. When are expenses and revenues counted in accrual accounting?

    Take an in-depth look at the treatment of revenues and expenses within the accrual method of accounting and learn why many ...
  48. What is the difference between a P&L statement and a balance sheet?

    Take a deeper look at the differences between the profit and loss statement and the balance sheet, two of the most important ...
  49. When does a business report gross margins?

    Learn how gross margins are calculated and when publicly traded companies release these figures. Explore consensus street ...
  50. What is a P&L statement used for?

    Discover how the profit and loss statement is used by investors, accountants and business managers to assess the health and ...
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