Fundamentals

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  1. What's the difference between an income statement and a balance sheet approach?

    Understand more about the principle purposes and primary differences between a company's income statement and its balance ...
  2. How do you use the profitability index rule when scoping out a project?

    Understand the parameters of the profitability index rule and how this rule is used in corporate capital allocation to determine ...
  3. Is NAV the best way to assess the value of an REIT?

    Examine and understand the usefulness of net asset value as an accurate metric with which to assess the value of a REIT investment.
  4. What is cash or pro forma income on an income statement?

    Understand what a pro-forma income statement is, how it differs from a standard income statement and why companies often ...
  5. Can companies insure their accounts receivable?

    Understand what credit insurance is and how it protects companies against payment problems they may encounter in trying to ...
  6. How can a company improve its Economic Value Added (EVA)?

    Find out about some of the ways a company could try to improve its economic profit, also known as its economic value added, ...
  7. What's the Rate of Return?

    Rate of return is the earnings an asset generates in excess of its initial cost. The amount is usually expressed as an annualized ...
  8. Understanding the Black-Scholes Model

    The Black-Scholes model is a mathematical model of a financial market. From it, the Black-Scholes formula was derived. The ...
  9. What's a Z-Score?

    In statistics, Z-score refers to how many standard deviations a particular data point is from the mean of the data. A Z-score ...
  10. What is Covariance?

    Covariance is a concept used in statistics and probability theory to describe how two variables change when compared to one ...
  11. What is Par Value?

    Par value is a term used for investments that means original value. It’s also called face value or nominal value.
  12. What's an Average Collection Period?

    Average collection period is an accounting term referring to the average number of days between a sale made on credit, and ...
  13. What types of companies have a high proportion of intangible assets?

    Explore what types of companies are most likely to have a high proportion of intangible assets, due to the nature of the ...
  14. What kinds of events or circumstances will increase or decrease the proportion of ...

    Learn the variety of events and circumstances which can significantly increase or decrease the proportion of intangible assets ...
  15. Are a bank's current assets counted as liquidity?

    Find out how bank assets are defined and how the Federal Reserve controls the definitions of, requirements for, and availability ...
  16. What is the difference between a company's equity and its shareholders' equity?

    Understand the difference and the interrelationship between shareholders' equity in a company and the company's actual total ...
  17. What Drives Oracle Stock Prices?

    Oracle stock price depend on the company keeping ahead of new technologies while also keeping costs low.
  18. What is the difference between the cost of capital and required return?

    Take a look at the primary conceptual differences between an investor's required rate of return and an issuing company's ...
  19. How do I use the news to find arbitrage opportunities?

    Learn what risk arbitrage trading is and how this type of arbitrage trading opportunity is available to individual retail ...
  20. What is the difference between EBIT and EBT?

    Take a closer look at the different calculations and uses of EBT and EBIT, two non-GAAP figures used to compare profitability ...
  21. What is the relationship between marginal return and profitability?

    Learn the basics of marginal return and how this metric influences a company's profitability, as well as how profitability ...
  22. Why is the PEG (price to earnings growth) ratio something I should be looking at ...

    Understand the price/earnings to growth ratio and why it may be a better stock valuation tool than the more widely used price-earnings ...
  23. How are taxes treated in the consumer price index (CPI)?

    Discover how various taxes are treated, either included or excluded, in the Consumer Price Index, or CPI, and how this affects ...
  24. Why do analysts look at operating cash flow?

    Learn how operating cash flow is used to determine financial health. Examine how cash flow is calculated, and what a low ...
  25. How do I use the PEG (price to earnings growth) ratio to determine whether a stock ...

    Using the PEG, or price/earnings to growth, ratio provides a better picture of a stock's valuation versus simply relying ...
  26. What is the difference between Economic Value Added (EVA) and Market Value Added ...

    Learn how economic value added (EVA) and market value added (MVA) company valuations differ and the circumstances under which ...
  27. What is the difference between cost of equity and cost of capital?

    Read about some of the differences between a company's cost of equity and its cost of capital, two measures of its required ...
  28. How do ridesharing companies like Uber make money?

    Discover the services a transportation company such as Uber provides and how the premiere ridesharing company operates and ...
  29. How do intangible assets appear on a balance sheet?

    Understand how various types of intangible assets are handled in a company's accounting and which of them you can find on ...
  30. What does a high weighted average cost of capital (WACC) signify?

    Find out what it means for a company to have a relatively high weighted average cost of capital, or WACC, and why this is ...
  31. Are marginal costs fixed or variable costs?

    Understand how to identify marginal costs as a function of fixed and variable costs. This article addresses how marginal ...
  32. How do hedge funds use short selling?

    Learn how hedge funds use short selling to profit from stocks that are falling in price. Explore different analytical techniques ...
  33. What is the difference between operating cash flow and net income?

    Learn how net income is an income statement for a certain period of time, while cash flow shows inflows and outflows based ...
  34. What is the formula for calculating earnings per share (EPS) in Excel?

    Understand the basics of the earnings per share ratio and how this important financial metric is calculated in Excel and ...
  35. How do I calculate dividend payout ratio from a balance sheet?

    Understand what the dividend payout ratio indicates and learn how it can be calculated using the figures from a company's ...
  36. How do I calculate the debt-to-equity ratio in Excel?

    Understand the basics of the debt to equity ratio, how it is interpreted as a measure of financial stability and how it is ...
  37. How can I calculate the acid test ratio in Excel?

    Understand how the acid test ratio is used by analysts to determine the financial health of a company and how to calculate ...
  38. What is the formula for calculating the current ratio in Excel?

    Understand the basics of the current ratio, including its use and interpretation as a financial metric and how it is calculated ...
  39. What is common stock and preferred stock?

    Learn about the differences between common and preferred shares. Explore situations where preferred shares have more favorable ...
  40. Why should fundamental investors pay attention to Cash Value Added (CVA)?

    Take a deeper look at cash value added, a metric used by fundamental investors to assess the ability of a company to meet ...
  41. What is considered a good PEG (price to earnings growth) ratio?

    Learn about the price/earnings to growth (PEG) ratio and understand what investors and market analysts consider a good ratio ...
  42. What is the formula for calculating the quick ratio in Excel?

    Understand the basics of the quick ratio, including how it is used as a measure of a company's liquidity and how to calculate ...
  43. What is the difference between profitability and profit?

    Calculating company profit and profitability are not one and the same, and investors should understand the difference between ...
  44. How do you calculate operating cash flow in Excel?

    Lenders and investors can predict the success of a company by using the spreadsheet application Excel to calculate the free ...
  45. What are the main benchmarks that track the oil & gas drilling sector?

    Read about several different types of benchmarks that investors can use to track the overall performance of the oil and gas ...
  46. Are taxes calculated in operating cash flow?

    Learn how taxes are involved with the calculations for operating cash flow, and find out about the importance of operational ...
  47. What are the main benchmarks that track the forest products sector?

    Learn how the net debt to EBITDA ratio, EBITDA to interest ratio and debt to capital ratio financial benchmarks are used ...
  48. Are secondary capital markets beneficial for society, or are there purely speculative?

    Learn why secondary bond markets are essential for both the capital market and economy. Explore the reasons they must be ...
  49. What metrics can be used to evaluate companies in the forest products sector?

    Understand some of the best financial and equity valuation measurements that can be utilized to evaluate companies in the ...
  50. What Happened To Obama’s Amnesty Bill?

    The sweeping Republican majorities were supposed to trigger change, but now they are preparing to embrace the Obama immigration ...
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