Fundamentals

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  1. What is the difference between the Sharpe ratio and alpha?

    Use alpha and the Sharpe ratio to evaluate mutual funds by comparing their risk-adjusted returns. Learn what modern portfolio ...
  2. What is the difference between book value and market value

    Learn the differences between book value and market value, and see how investors use each type to determine if a company ...
  3. How do I calculate incremental return on investment capital?

    Discover how to calculate a company's return on incremental invested capital, or ROIIC. See how ROIIC differs from traditional ...
  4. When and why were GAAP first established?

    Take a deeper look into the development and purpose of the generally accepted accounting principles, also known as GAAP, ...
  5. What is a good debt ratio, and what is a bad debt ratio?

    Learn about the factors that influence how investors and lenders evaluate the debt ratio for a company and why the answer ...
  6. How long are accounts receivable allowed to be outstanding?

    Learn about accounts receivable, including how long they typically remain outstanding, and how their payment or lack of payment ...
  7. What is the difference between standard deviation and average deviation?

    Understand the basics of standard deviation and average deviation, including how each is calculated and why standard deviation ...
  8. What does it signify about the state of a company if it has unusually high shareholders' ...

    Understand the meaning and calculation of shareholder equity and what a high level of shareholder equity signifies about ...
  9. The Pros and Cons of a Weak Euro

    The lingering Eurozone crisis has caused the euro to decline against the U.S. dollar. Who are the real winners and losers ...
  10. What does operating margin measure?

    Learn about why investors look to a company's operating margin, or return on sales, as a signal of both efficiency and profitability.
  11. Who uses book value to estimate the value of a company?

    Understand the meaning of the term "book value" and how it is used by market analysts to estimate the worth or market value ...
  12. What is the difference between gross profit margin and net profit margin?

    Understand the difference between the two profitability measures, gross profit margin and net profit margin, and how to calculate ...
  13. What is the difference between operating margin and gross margin?

    Discover the main differences between operating margin and gross margin, and how investors and analysts interpret each differently.
  14. What are the main factors that drive share prices in the railroads sector?

    Discover the main factors that impact the success of companies in the railroad industry and that have the greatest effect ...
  15. How does seasonality affect the railroads sector?

    Understand the effects of seasonal factors on the railroad industry and how they impact revenues and expenses for railroad ...
  16. What are examples of popular companies in the forest products sector?

    Investing in companies operating under the purview of the forestry trade allows for the inclusion of an alternative asset ...
  17. What is the difference between a capital expenditure and a revenue expenditure?

    Understand the difference between a company's capital expenditures and revenue expenditures, and how each expense appears ...
  18. How much liquidity is considered too much liquidity?

    Learn about the risks of holding too much cash or investing in assets that are too liquid, and discover how liquidity is ...
  19. How do you calculate the ratio between debt and equity in the cost of capital

    Discover how to calculate the ratio between debt and equity when making cost of capital estimations using the weighted average ...
  20. What is the average return on equity for a company in the railroads sector?

    Learn what the average return on equity ratio is for companies in the railroad industry as compared to the ROE for other ...
  21. What is the average profit margin for a company in the railroads sector?

    Explore the average profit margins for companies in the railroad industry, and learn why analysts focus on operating margin ...
  22. What is the average price-to-book ratio in the railroads sector?

    Explore the average price-to-book ratio of companies in the railroad industry, and learn why the P/B ratio is better than ...
  23. How do I use Excel to calculate the book value per common share?

    Learn the basics of book value per common share, how it is used to assess the value of a stock and how to calculate this ...
  24. What is the formula for calculating net present value (NPV) in Excel?

    Understand how net present value is used to estimate the anticipated profitability of projects or investments and how to ...
  25. What is the average growth rate of the forest products sector?

    Learn about the average growth rate in the forest products sector, along with the contributions this sector makes to the ...
  26. The Capital Asset Pricing (CAPM) Model: Pros and Cons

    CAPM, while criticized for its unrealistic assumptions, provides a more useful outcome than either the DDM or WACC in many ...
  27. How do you transfer common stock from one broker to another?

    Understand how common stock assets are transferred from broker to broker using the Automated Customer Account Transfer Service ...
  28. Can anyone own common stock in a company?

    Understand who can purchase common stock as well as the key characteristics that differentiate common stock from preferred ...
  29. What metrics can be used to evaluate companies in the railroads sector?

    Take a deeper look at some of the specific metrics that investors should rely on when evaluating companies in the railroads ...
  30. What are examples of popular companies in the railroads sector?

    Discover some of the most popular railroad company stocks within the transportation sector, and learn about the top companies ...
  31. What is the difference between book value per common share and NAV (net asset value)?

    Understand the difference between book value per common share and net asset value, and learn how these evaluations are used ...
  32. What are some examples of preferred stock, and why do companies issue it?

    Understand the difference between preferred stock and common stock, and learn the primary reasons why companies issue preferred ...
  33. How do you calculate costs of capital when budgeting new projects?

    Discover how a company should estimate its costs of capital when budgeting for a new business project using the weighted ...
  34. Has gold been a good investment over the long term?

    Examine the performance of gold as an investment, dating back to 1933, when President Roosevelt required all gold bullion, ...
  35. Are there any downsides to globalization?

    Understand the commonly cited detriments of the globalization process and its impact on the work force, environment and costs ...
  36. How Do I Calculate the Price-Earnings Ratio?

    If Apple is trading at $108.73 per share, and its trailing twelve months' EPS is $6.45, calculate the P/E ratio as...
  37. App-pocalypse! 20 Industries Disrupted By New Tech

    Mainstream economic thought says that while those displaced by technology will see their industries destroyed, the industries ...
  38. What's the difference between an income statement and a balance sheet approach?

    Understand more about the principle purposes and primary differences between a company's income statement and its balance ...
  39. Is NAV the best way to assess the value of an REIT?

    Examine and understand the usefulness of net asset value as an accurate metric with which to assess the value of a REIT investment.
  40. How do you use the profitability index rule when scoping out a project?

    Understand the parameters of the profitability index rule and how this rule is used in corporate capital allocation to determine ...
  41. What is cash or pro forma income on an income statement?

    Understand what a pro-forma income statement is, how it differs from a standard income statement and why companies often ...
  42. Can companies insure their accounts receivable?

    Understand what credit insurance is and how it protects companies against payment problems they may encounter in trying to ...
  43. How can a company improve its Economic Value Added (EVA)?

    Find out about some of the ways a company could try to improve its economic profit, also known as its economic value added, ...
  44. What's the Rate of Return?

    Rate of return is the earnings an asset generates in excess of its initial cost. The amount is usually expressed as an annualized ...
  45. Understanding the Black-Scholes Model

    The Black-Scholes model is a mathematical model of a financial market. From it, the Black-Scholes formula was derived. The ...
  46. What's a Z-Score?

    In statistics, Z-score refers to how many standard deviations a particular data point is from the mean of the data. A Z-score ...
  47. What is Covariance?

    Covariance is a concept used in statistics and probability theory to describe how two variables change when compared to one ...
  48. What is Par Value?

    Par value is a term used for investments that means original value. It’s also called face value or nominal value.
  49. What's an Average Collection Period?

    Average collection period is an accounting term referring to the average number of days between a sale made on credit, and ...
  50. What types of companies have a high proportion of intangible assets?

    Explore what types of companies are most likely to have a high proportion of intangible assets, due to the nature of the ...
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