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Tickers in this Article: HNP, MLM, PXD, CEO, CMI, BCH, CXO
On a good day for the market, the Nasdaq has increased 1.1%, the S&P 500 has increased 0.6% and the Dow is trading up 0.4%. Also known as the "Big Board", the NYSE relied for many years on floor trading only, using the open outcry system.

The biggest movers traded on the NYSE so far are:
CompanyMarket CapPercentage Change
Huaneng Power International, Inc (NYSE:HNP)$10.38 billion-6%
Martin Marietta Materials (NYSE:MLM)$4.04 billion+5.4%
Pioneer Natural Res (NYSE:PXD)$13.45 billion+5.3%
CNOOC Limited (NYSE:CEO)$87.89 billion+4%
Cummins (NYSE:CMI)$19.08 billion+3.9%
Banco de Chile (NYSE:BCH)$12.62 billion-3.8%
Concho Resources (NYSE:CXO)$10.15 billion+3.6%
Beginner's Guide To

Huaneng Power International, Inc (NYSE:HNP) has decreased to $27.79 per share, a 6% fall. This morning, the company is trading a volume of 63,138 shares. Volume is used to evaluate how meaningful the price movement of a stock is. It is important for an investor to estimate the value of any potential or existing investment; valuation ratios make this easier. Price/earnings ratios (P/E ratios) provide a measure of the relative value of a stock. Compared to the industry average of 10.46, HNP's P/E ratio of 30.2 is quite high. This could mean that the market is expecting big things over the next few months or years. High P/E stocks could be "growth" stocks, while low PE stocks may be "value" stocks. SEE: Profit With The Power Of Price-To-Earnings

Martin Marietta Materials (NYSE:MLM) is at $92.89 per share after an increase of 5.4%. So far today, the company's volume is 437,826 shares, 0.8 times its average over the past three months. The trading volume for a stock indicates the level of investor interest. Valuation ratios allow the investor to make a quick determination as to a company's investment value. As with most ratios, comparisons of company price/earnings to growth ratios (PEG ratios) are most appropriate for similar companies. MLM's PEG ratio is 5.09. While P/E ratios are important indicators of market value, a high P/E in and of itself is not bad because it may indicate a company whose earnings are growing very rapidly, so many investors look at the PEG ratio in order to get an idea of whether or not a particular P/E ratio is justified by underlying earnings growth.

Pioneer Natural Res (NYSE:PXD) is currently trading at $115.10 per share, a 5.3% increase. The company's volume for the day so far is 1.6 million shares. A stock's volume conveys how excited investors are about it. Looking at a company's valuation ratios is a good way of getting a basic idea as to its value as an investment. The debt ratio measures the leverage of a company, and a company's leverage is a good way to assess risk. The debt ratio for PXD is 54.6%. As with all financial ratios, a company's debt ratio should be compared with the industry average or similar companies.

CNOOC Limited (NYSE:CEO) has risen 4% and is currently trading at $204.66 per share. The company's volume is currently 127,985 shares for the day, 0.7 times the average daily volume. Price change alone is not enough to know how a stock is doing. Volume is an important secondary indicator used to confirm trends suggested by price movement. While investment valuation ratios are useful tools in estimating the attractiveness of an investment, remember that it is important to look at a company's historical performance and compare the company ratios with its competitors and industry overall. For investors primarily interested in the income a stock can generate, the dividend yield is an important determinant of how attractive a stock is. CEO has a low dividend yield of 1.8%. If you are an income investor, this stock may not be attractive to you. It is important to remember that while a higher dividend yield is more attractive, all else being equal, a higher dividend yield can also indicate greater perceived risk. SEE: Investment Valuation Ratios: Dividend Yield

Increasing 3.9%, Cummins (NYSE:CMI) is trading at $104.06 per share. So far today, the company's volume is 1.2 million shares. Volume is an important indicator because it indicates how significant a price shift is. In making a decision about a potential or existing investment, valuation ratios are useful as a basis for seeing whether the stock price is too high, reasonable, or a bargain. In a nutshell, the price/sales ratio shows how much Wall Street values every dollar of the company's sales. CMI's P/S ratio is 1.0. A limitation of the P/S ratio is that the price component measures only stock market captialization, while sales are a function of the entire capital structure, potentially leading to wide differences between levered and unlevered companies.

Falling 3.8%, Banco de Chile (NYSE:BCH) is currently at a share price of $82.73. With 55,042 shares changing hands so far today, the company's volume is 2.2 times the average volume over the last three months. High volume indicates a lot of investor interest while low volume indicates the opposite. A company's value as an investment is more easily estimated using valuation ratios such as the price to earnings (P/E) ratio, the price to earnings growth (PEG) ratio, the price to sales (P/S) ratio, the price to book (P/B) ratio, and the dividend yield. The price/book value ratio is calculated by dividing the current stock price by the company's book value per share. BCH's P/B ratio of 3.4 shows that its share price is higher than its book value. This implies that investors expect management to create more value from a given set of assets and/or that the market value of the firm's assets is significantly higher than their accounting value. A weakness of the P/B value ratio is that while the price component is easily determined by looking at the stock quote, the book value component is more difficult to estimate and more open to individual interpretation and analysis. SEE: How Buybacks Warps The Price-To-Book Ratio

Concho Resources (NYSE:CXO) has risen 3.6% and is currently trading at $100.75 per share. The company's volume is currently 603,294 shares. This is on pace to reach yesterday's trading volume of 1.4 million shares. Volume indicates the level of interest that investors have in a company at its current price. Investors can use valuation ratios as tools to estimate what kind of deal a particular investment is. The debt-equity (D/E) ratio is a leverage ratio. CXO's D/E ratio is 76%. The D/E ratio is not a pure measurement of a company's debt because it includes operational liabilities in total liabilities.

The Bottom Line On any given day, a particular stock may see positive or negative change in its share price. It is important to weigh current activity against historical performance when making any investment decisions. However, these fundamental metrics must be analyzed with historic data, industry information in addition to firm specific financial statements.

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