1. Equity Securities2. Debt Securities3. Government Securities4. The Money Market

When an investor purchases a bond in the secondary market at a discount, the discount must be accreted over the remaining life of the bond. The accretion of the discount will result in a higher yield to maturity. When an investor purchases a bond in the secondary market at a premium, the premium must be amortized over the remaining life of the bond. The amortization of the premium will result in a lower yield to maturity.

In order to calculate the bonds approximate yield to maturity, use the following formulas:

For a bond purchased at a discount use:

(Annual Interest + Annualized Discount) / (Price Paid + PAR) / 2

The Annualized discount is found by taking the total discount and dividing it by the number of years remaining until maturity. For example, letâ€™s assume an investor purchased a 10% bond at \$900 with 10 years until maturity. The bonds approximate yield to maturity would be found as follows:

\$100 + \$10 / \$900 + \$1,000 / 2

In this case the bondâ€™s approximate yield to maturity is 11.57%.

For a bond purchased at a premium use:

(Annual Interest - Annualized Premium) / (Price Paid + PAR) / 2

The Annualized premium is found by taking the total premium and dividing it by the number of years remaining until maturity. For example lets assume an investor purchased a 10% bond at \$1,100 with 10 years until maturity.

The bonds approximate yield to maturity would be found as follows:

\$100 - \$10 / \$1,100 + \$1,000 / 2

In this case the bondâ€™s approximate yield to maturity is 8.57%

Calculating the Yield to Call

In the event that the bond may be called in or redeemed by the issuer under a call feature an investor may calculate the approximate yield to call by using the approximate number of years left until the bond may be called.

Take note: The yield to call will always extend past the yield to maturity. The yield to call will always be the highest yield on a bond purchased at a discount and it will always be the lowest yield for a bond purchased at a premium.

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Maturities

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