When it comes to formulating government policies, Silicon Valley's most powerful tech executives always have a seat at the table, literally as was the case during the White House tech summits we've seen happen this year. They also make sure their collective voice is heard through lobbying the House, Senate, White House, and federal agencies.

In the first quarter of this year, $47.8 million was spent on lobbying by 275 organizations belonging to or representing the Internet and electronics manufacturing and equipment industry, according to OpenSecrets. The top three spenders – Alphabet Inc. (GOOG), Facebook Inc. (FB) and Amazon.com Inc. (AMZN) – accounted for 62 percent of the total amount spent by all Internet companies.

While the companies' list of "action items" aren't identical – Amazon lobbies on issues related to the postal service and drones, Alphabet concerns itself with transportation policy, and Facebook with law enforcement and crime – here are the biggest issues that came up in the first quarter of 2017.

1. Intelligence

Tech companies have been actively fighting the government on surveillance issues, especially government requests for data. This has been more pronounced since Edward Snowden leaked documents that described the scope of the NSA's activities and suggested firms were co-operating with the government to provide access to user data. (See also: Twitter Reveals FBI Requests for Account Data.)

Parts of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, or FISA, are set to expire this year, and companies are lobbying for the law to be reformed if it is to be reauthorized. The Prism surveillance program allows the government to collect messaging data sent from and to a subject overseas that is under surveillance. In May, Facebook, Google, Microsoft Corp. (MSFT) and a host of other companies wrote directly to Congress. The Trump administration has urged Congress to keep the law unchanged.

Alphabet, Microsoft, Twitter Inc. (TWTR), Facebook, DropBox and Yahoo have specifically lobbied the government on the Email Privacy Act (H.R. 387), a recently introduced bill that would require the government to gain a warrant before requesting access to private emails. The bill was recently passed in the House. "The Senate now has a historic opportunity to shepherd this landmark reform toward enactment. While there are disagreements about other aspects of surveillance reform, there is no disagreement that emails and electronic content deserve Fourth Amendment protections," wrote Richard Salgado, Google's Director of Law Enforcement and Information Security. Since 2010, Google has testified before Congress four times in support of this reform.

Facebook, which is fighting the government on a gag order that bars it from telling users about warrants, mentioned the need to "reform government surveillance programs, including additional substantive and procedural privacy protections and providing more transparency around national security-related orders" in its filings.

Top lobbying firms on intelligence according to number of reports were Microsoft, Facebook, Intel Corp. (INTC), Cray Inc. (CRAY) – a data storage solutions provider – and Twitter.

2. Telecommunication: Net Neutrality and Broadband Access

The Internet Association, a political lobbying organization representing more than three dozen companies including Google, Facebook, Snap, Spotify and Netflix, met with Trump-appointed Federal Communications Commission Chairman Ajit Pai in April to talk about the importance of net neutrality. Pai has proposed a roll back of Obama-era net neutrality rules which make sure internet providers like Comcast and Verizon do not recognize differences between internet users, something Republicans view as an overreach. Streaming content provider Roku also hired a pair of Republican lobbyists that same month to oppose Pai's stance – the first time the company has ever retained lobbyists in Washington, D.C. – according to Recode. (See also: Web Giants to Join Online Net Neutrality Protest.)

Microsoft has also made clear that it wants to bridge the digital divide in the U.S. with white-space technology. The software giant has lobbied for this, and Qualcomm Inc. (QCOM) has lobbied for additional spectrum to support mobile broadband. Alphabet also lobbied in relation to white spaces rules and spectrum allocation.

Top lobbying firms on telecommunication according to number of reports were Microsoft, Intel, Qualcomm, Yahoo and Alphabet.

3. Taxes

Corporate tax reform and international tax policy continue to be high priority to U.S. multinationals. Trump's brief tax reform plan mentions a large tax cut for corporations and a one-time repatriation of profits at a reduced rate. Companies have been lobbying the government on this issue, but there isn't any legislation in Congress.

Intuit Inc. (INTU), the maker of TurboTax software, has lobbied in support of strengthening anti-cyberfraud protections for the tax system and taxpayers, specifically in relation to the Stolen Identity Refund Fraud Prevention Act of 2017, which asks the IRS to establish a centralized point of contact for identify theft victims.

The company has also disclosed it lobbied in support of IRS Taxpayer Assistance Programs, VITA and Free File. Intuit says it lobbies in favor of the IRS's Free File program, but as a ProPublica report detailed, it supports a bill that would make permanent its partnership with the IRS to provide free online tax fling services to low and middle income families and bar the IRS from offering its own free alternative.

Top lobbying firms on taxes according to a number of reports were Microsoft, Intuit, Amazon, Oracle Corp. (ORCL), Apple Inc. (AAPL), Expedia Inc. (EXPE), and another tax preparing software maker – H&R Block Inc. (HRB).

4. Homeland Security

Cyber and data security are hot button issues for tech companies, especially with the cloud computing business helping boost revenue at firms like Alphabet and Microsoft. "Cloud environments face many of the same threats as traditional corporate networks, but due to the vast amount of data stored on cloud servers, providers become an attractive target," writes IDG.

"State-sponsored cybercrime is increasingly a threat, especially from China," said the Internet Association in a report released last month. "Many Chinese industries have turned to hacking as a replacement for research and development, calculating that it’s cheaper to copy American IP from a hack than to develop their own products."

Top lobbyists on homeland security according to number of reports were Alphabet, Facebook, Microsoft, Intel and Oracle.

5. Immigration

Chief executives at the tech giants are concerned about the current administration's promise to reform the temporary worker visa program called H-1B. While the biggest users of these visas are IT consulting firms, companies like Apple and Microsoft also rely on them for recruiting foreign talent.

A look at the bills Cognizant Technology Solutions (CTSH), one of the biggest H-1B visa sponsors, has lobbied on in the first quarter of 2017 reveals that the firm is heavily focused on influencing immigration reform. (See also: The H-1B Visa Issue Explained.)

Source: OpenSecrets

Top lobbying firms on immigration according to a number of reports were Microsoft, Alphabet, Yahoo, Zebra Technologies and Cognizant Technology Solutions. Zebra Technologies Corp. (ZBRA) has not been lobbying in regards to H-1B, but on issues related to e-verify systems.

6. Copyright, Patent and Trademark

Most tech firms are pushing for long overdue patent reform in the United States and the modernization of the country's Copyright Office. The office is currently a service unit in the Library of Congress and registers half a million creative works a year. However it faces challenges due to its outdated IT system and lack of leadership, according to a government report.

Spotify, Pandora Media Inc. (P), Microsoft and Oracle have lobbied in relation to a bill that would require the president to appoint of Register of Copyrights to supervise a chief information officer.

Microsoft specifically lobbied in relation to the Copyright Office for the Digital Economy Act H.R.890, which establishes the U.S. Copyright Office as "a separate independent agency in the legislative branch, to be headed by a director appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate."

Top lobbying firms on these issues according to number of reports were Alphabet, Intel, Microsoft, Spotify and Yahoo.

7. Antitrust and Trade

Before the European Commission slapped Google with a record-breaking fine, the company was reportedly asking U.S. lawmakers to sign a a letter criticizing EU antitrust regulation. Microsoft's reports also mention "European Commission investigation of competition in the software industry" alongwith software piracy in China.

The TPP deal died in Congress last year after Trump's unexpected election victory, and that has made big tech names nervous. TPP was going to stop governments from blocking the flow of data across borders of participating countries and included a ban on "forced localization" or companies being ordered to keep data within the country in which it originates. Big tech firms like Alphabet, Amazon and Oracle have been lobbying the government on global data flows and international trade agreements. Another issue that is brought up a lot is the U.S./EU Privacy Shield.

Alibaba Group (BABA) has been lobbying the House, Senate, and multiple federal agencies on "small & medium sized enterprise trade promotion."

8. The Internet of Things

In terms of the Internet of Things movement, the Developing Innovation and Growing the Internet of Things Act or the DIGIT Act has received attention from names like IBM Corp. (IBM), Intel, Amazon, Panasonic (PCRFY), and Qualcomm. The bill asks that the Department of Commerce convene a working group of federal stakeholders to provide recommendations and a report to Congress regarding the IoT.

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