Definition of 'Absolute Priority'
A rule that stipulates the order of payment - creditors before shareholders - in the event of liquidation. The absolute priority rule is used in bankruptcies to decide what portion of payment will be received by which participants. Debts to creditors will be paid first and shareholders (partial owners) divide what remains.
Regarding the estate of a deceased person, the absolute priority rule will ensure payment of outstanding debts before the distribution to beneficiaries.
Also known as "liquidation preference."
Investopedia explains 'Absolute Priority'
Absolute priority specifies the pecking order. Senior creditors always get first grabs at the proceeds from liquidation, and shareholders are the last to get paid. This rule provides a degree of protection to creditors in the event of insolvency or death. The division of benefits (cash) is not always the result of a bankruptcy. It can also occur due to the liquidation of assets in order to pay down a company's liabilities.
In estate cases if the resources of the estate are insufficient to pay off the debts, assets will need to be liquidated to handle the obligations.