Altman Z-Score


DEFINITION of 'Altman Z-Score'

The output of a credit-strength test that gauges a publicly traded manufacturing company's likelihood of bankruptcy. The Altman Z-score, is based on five financial ratios that can be calculated from data found on a company's annual 10K report. The Altman Z-score is calculated as follows:

Z-Score = 1.2A + 1.4B + 3.3C + 0.6D + 1.0E


A = Working Capital/Total Assets
B = Retained Earnings/Total Assets
C = Earnings Before Interest & Tax/Total Assets
D = Market Value of Equity/Total Liabilities
E = Sales/Total Assets

A score below 1.8 means the company is probably headed for bankruptcy, while companies with scores above 3.0 are not likely to go bankrupt. The lower/higher the score, the lower/higher the likelihood of bankruptcy.


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BREAKING DOWN 'Altman Z-Score'

NYU Stern Finance Professor, Edward Altman, developed the Altman Z-score formula in 1967. In 2012, he released an updated version called the Altman Z-score Plus, that can be used to evaluate both public and private companies, both manufacturing and nonmanufacturing companies and both U.S. and non-U.S. companies. Investors can use Altman Z-scores to help determine whether they should buy or sell a particular stock if they're concerned about the underlying company's financial strength. The Altman Z-score Plus can be used to evaluate corporate credit risk.

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  1. What does a Z-Score tell a stock analyst about the health of a company?

    The Altman Z-score measures a company's likelihood of bankruptcy by using five ratios that are assigned different weights ... Read Full Answer >>
  2. How is the Altman Z-Score used in fundamental analysis?

    The Altman Z-score is used in fundamental analysis to gauge the financial health of a company. It is used to assess a company's ... Read Full Answer >>
  3. How can an investor use the Z-Score to compare investment options?

    The Altman Z-score is a test that an investor uses to gauge the likelihood of a company going bankrupt. The Altman Z-score ... Read Full Answer >>
  4. What can working capital be used for?

    Working capital is used to cover all of a company's short-term expenses, including inventory, payments on short-term debt ... Read Full Answer >>
  5. Does working capital include stock?

    A certain portion of a company’s working capital is generally composed of earnings; however, current short-term assets that ... Read Full Answer >>
  6. Does working capital include short-term debt?

    Short-term debt is considered part of a company's current liabilities and is included in the calculation of working capital. ... Read Full Answer >>

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