What is a 'Capital Loss'
A capital loss is the loss incurred when a capital asset, such as an investment or real estate, decreases in value; this loss is not realized until the asset is sold for a price that is lower than the original purchase price. A capital loss is essentially the difference between the purchase price and the price at which the asset is sold, where the sale price is lower than the purchase price. For example, if an investor bought a house for $250,000 and sold the house five years later for $200,000, the investor realizes a capital loss of $50,000.
BREAKING DOWN 'Capital Loss'For the purposes of personal income tax, capital gains can be offset by capital losses. When a position is liquidated for a sale price that is less than the purchase price, taxable income is reduced on a dollar-for-dollar basis. Net losses of more than $3,000 can be carried over to the following tax year to offset gains or directly reduce taxable income. Substantial losses carry forward to subsequent years until the amount of the loss is exhausted.
Reporting Capital Losses
Capital losses and capital gains are reported on Form 8949, on which dates of sale determine whether those transactions constitute short- or long-term gains or losses. Short-term gains are taxed at ordinary income rates that range from 10 to 39.6% in 2015. Thus, short-term losses, matched against short-term gains, benefit high-income earners who have realized profits by selling an asset within a year of purchase.
Long-term capital gains, in which investors are taxed at rates of 0, 15 or 20% when profiting from a position held longer than one year, are likewise offset by capital losses realized after one year. Form 8949 reports the description of assets sold, the cost basis of those assets and the gross proceeds from sales, ultimately determining whether aggregate sales result in a gain, loss or wash. A loss flows from Form 8949 to Schedule D, which determines the dollar amount used to reduce taxable income.
Capital Losses and Wash Sales
Wash sales involving capital loss are exemplified in the following scenarios. After dumping Apple stock on Nov. 30 to claim a loss, the Internal Revenue Service disallows the capital loss if the same stock is purchased on or before Dec. 30, requiring the investor to wait 31 days before the repurchased security can be sold again to claim another loss. The rule does not apply to the sale and repurchase of a mutual fund with similar holdings. Sidestepping the rule, a dollar amount sold in the Vanguard Energy Fund can be fully reinvested in the Fidelity Select Energy Portfolio, preserving the right to claim a subsequent loss while maintaining exposure to a similar portfolio of equities.