Chapter 12

Definition of 'Chapter 12'


A U.S. bankruptcy proceeding specifically for family farms or fisheries that gives the farm or fishery owner the ability to reorganize his or her finances and debts while still keeping the farm or fishery. The farm or fishery owner will work with a bankruptcy trustee and creditors to formulate a payment program that will meet his or her owner obligations. This proceeding is available for individually run family farms and fisheries as well as those owned by a corporation or partnership.

Investopedia explains 'Chapter 12'


Chapter 12 was enacted in 1986 specifically for farms and fisheries to make the bankruptcy process easier for these types of businesses. Prior to Chapter 12, farmers would have to either file for protection under Chapter 11, which can be very expensive and is mainly for large corporations, or Chapter 13, which is mainly for those with relatively small outstanding debts (generally not the case for farms and fisheries).

In order to qualify for this protection, both individuals and corporations must get the majority of income for the farm/fishery operations. There is also a limit on the size of the outstanding debt.



comments powered by Disqus
Hot Definitions
  1. Market Capitalization

    The total dollar market value of all of a company's outstanding shares. Market capitalization is calculated by multiplying a company's shares outstanding by the current market price of one share. The investment community uses this figure to determine a company's size, as opposed to sales or total asset figures.
  2. Oil Reserves

    An estimate of the amount of crude oil located in a particular economic region. Oil reserves must have the potential of being extracted under current technological constraints. For example, if oil pools are located at unattainable depths, they would not be considered part of the nation's reserves.
  3. Joint Venture - JV

    A business arrangement in which two or more parties agree to pool their resources for the purpose of accomplishing a specific task. This task can be a new project or any other business activity. In a joint venture (JV), each of the participants is responsible for profits, losses and costs associated with it.
  4. Aggregate Risk

    The exposure of a bank, financial institution, or any type of major investor to foreign exchange contracts - both spot and forward - from a single counterparty or client. Aggregate risk in forex may also be defined as the total exposure of an entity to changes or fluctuations in currency rates.
  5. Organic Growth

    The growth rate that a company can achieve by increasing output and enhancing sales. This excludes any profits or growth acquired from takeovers, acquisitions or mergers. Takeovers, acquisitions and mergers do not bring about profits generated within the company, and are therefore not considered organic.
  6. Family Limited Partnership - FLP

    A type of partnership designed to centralize family business or investment accounts. FLPs pool together a family's assets into one single family-owned business partnership that family members own shares of. FLPs are frequently used as an estate tax minimization strategy, as shares in the FLP can be transferred between generations, at lower taxation rates than would be applied to the partnership's holdings.
Trading Center