DEFINITION of 'Combined Ratio'
A measure of profitability used by an insurance company to indicate how well it is performing in its daily operations.
The combined ratio is calculated by taking the sum of incurred losses and expenses and then dividing them by earned premium. The ratio is typically expressed as a percentage. A ratio below 100% indicates that the company is making underwriting profit while a ratio above 100% means that it is paying out more money in claims that it is receiving from premiums. Even if the combined ratio is above 100%, a company can potentially still make a profit, because the ratio does not include the income received from investments.
Many insurance companies believe that this is the best way to measure the success of a company because it does not include investment income and only includes profit that is earned through efficient management.
Calculated as:
Also called "the combined ratio after policyholder dividends ratio."
INVESTOPEDIA EXPLAINS 'Combined Ratio'
The combined ratio after policyholder dividends ratio measures the money flowing out of an insurance company in the form of dividends, expenses, and losses. It is the sum of the loss ratio (loss and lossadjustment ratio divided by net premiums earned), expense ratio (underwriting expenses divided by net premiums written), and policyholder dividend ratio.
The components of the ratio each tell a story, and should be examined both together and separately in order to understand what is driving the insurer to be profitable or unprofitable. Dividends are generated from the premiums generated from the insurer’s underwriting activities. The loss and lossadjustment ratio demonstrates how much it costs the insurer to offer one dollar of protection. The expense ratio shows how expensive it is to generate new business, since it takes into account commissions, salaries, overhead, benefits, and operating costs.
The combined ratio does not take into account investment income. This is an important item to note, since a portion of dividends will be invested in equities, bonds, and other securities. The investment income ratio (investment income divided by net premiums earned) takes investment income into account, and is used in the calculation of the overall operating ratio.
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Operating Cost
Expenses associated with administering a business on a day to ... 
Earned Premium
The amount of total premiums collected by an insurance company ... 
Policyholder Dividend Ratio
The policyholder dividend ratio is a measurement of the profitability ... 
Losses Incurred
Benefits paid to policyholders during the current year, plus ... 
Losses and LossAdjustment Expense
The portion of an insurance company’s reserves set aside for ... 
Net Premium
The expected present value of a policy’s benefits less the expected ...

How can I use the combined ratio to compare insurance companies?
Use the combined ratio to compare the profitability of insurance companies and how well the companies' operations are performing. ... Read Full Answer >> 
How do I calculate the combined ratio in Excel?
You can calculate the combined ratio on Microsoft Excel after you retrieve an insurance company's report of its losses incurred, ... Read Full Answer >> 
What is the difference between the loss ratio and combined ratio?
The loss ratio and combined ratio are two ratios used to measure the profitability of an insurance company. The loss ratio ... Read Full Answer >> 
How do I calculate the combined ratio?
The combined ratio is a quick and simple way to measure the profitability and financial health of an insurance company. The ... Read Full Answer >> 
How does the combined ratio measure the financial health of insurance companies?
The combined ratio measures the profitability of an insurance company by examining its earned premium from its policyholders ... Read Full Answer >> 
What is the difference between the return on total assets and an interest rate?
Return on total assets (ROTA) represents one of the profitability metrics. It is calculated by taking a company's earnings ... Read Full Answer >>

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