Combined Ratio

Definition of 'Combined Ratio'


A measure of profitability used by an insurance company to indicate how well it is performing in its daily operations. A ratio below 100% indicates that the company is making underwriting profit while a ratio above 100% means that it is paying out more money in claims that it is receiving from premiums.

The combined ratio is comprised of the claims ratio and the expense ratio. The claims ratio is claims owed as a percentage of revenue earned from premiums. The expense ratio is operating costs as a percentage of revenue earned from premiums. The combined ratio is calculated by taking the sum of incurred losses and expenses and then dividing them by earned premium.

Calculated as:

Combined Ratio

Investopedia explains 'Combined Ratio'


Even if the combined ratio is above of 100%, a company can potentially still make a profit, because the ratio does not include the income received from investments.

Many insurance companies believe that this is the best way to measure the success of a company because it does not include investment income and therefore only includes profit that is earned through efficient management.


Filed Under:

comments powered by Disqus
Hot Definitions
  1. Genuine Progress Indicator - GPI

    A metric used to measure the economic growth of a country. It is often considered as a replacement to the more well known gross domestic product (GDP) economic indicator. The GPI indicator takes everything the GDP uses into account, but also adds other figures that represent the cost of the negative effects related to economic activity (such as the cost of crime, cost of ozone depletion and cost of resource depletion, among others).
  2. Accelerated Share Repurchase - ASR

    A specific method by which corporations can repurchase outstanding shares of their stock. The accelerated share repurchase (ASR) is usually accomplished by the corporation purchasing shares of its stock from an investment bank. The investment bank borrows the shares from clients or share lenders and sells them to the company.
  3. Microeconomic Pricing Model

    A model of the way prices are set within a market for a given good. According to this model, prices are set based on the balance of supply and demand in the market. In general, profit incentives are said to resemble an "invisible hand" that guides competing participants to an equilibrium price. The demand curve in this model is determined by consumers attempting to maximize their utility, given their budget.
  4. Centralized Market

    A financial market structure that consists of having all orders routed to one central exchange with no other competing market. The quoted prices of the various securities listed on the exchange represent the only price that is available to investors seeking to buy or sell the specific asset.
  5. Balanced Investment Strategy

    A portfolio allocation and management method aimed at balancing risk and return. Such portfolios are generally divided equally between equities and fixed-income securities.
  6. Negative Carry

    A situation in which the cost of holding a security exceeds the yield earned. A negative carry situation is typically undesirable because it means the investor is losing money. An investor might, however, achieve a positive after-tax yield on a negative carry trade if the investment comes with tax advantages, as might be the case with a bond whose interest payments were nontaxable.
Trading Center