What is a 'Currency Pair'
A currency pair is the quotation and pricing structure of the currencies traded in the forex market; the value of a currency is a rate and is determined by its comparison to another currency. The first listed currency of a currency pair is called the base currency, and the second currency is called the quote currency. The currency pair indicates how much of the quote currency is needed to purchase one unit of the base currency.
BREAKING DOWN 'Currency Pair'All forex trades involve the simultaneous purchase of one currency and sale of another, but the currency pair itself can be thought of as a single unit, an instrument that is bought or sold. If you buy a currency pair, you buy the base currency and implicitly sell the quoted currency. The bid (buy price) represents how much of the quote currency you need to get one unit of the base currency. Conversely, when you sell the currency pair, you sell the base currency and receive the quote currency. The ask (sell price) for the currency pair represents how much you will get in the quote currency for selling one unit of base currency.
For example, if the USD/EUR currency pair is quoted as being USD/EUR = 1.5 and you purchase the pair, this means that for every 1.5 euros that you sell, you purchase (receive) $1 in U.S. currency. If you sold the currency pair, you would receive 1.5 euros for every $1 you sell. The inverse of the currency quote is EUR/USD, and the corresponding price would be EUR/USD = 0.667, meaning that 66.7 cents in U.S. currency would buy 1 euro.
Major Currency Pairs
There are as many currency pairs as there are currencies in the world. The total number of currency pairs that exist changes as currencies come and go. All currency pairs are categorized according to the amount of volume that is traded on a daily basis for a pair. The currencies that trade the most volume against the U.S. dollar are referred to as the major currencies. These include the EUR/USD, GBP/USD, USD/JPY, USD/CHF, AUD/USD and USD/CAD. All of the major currency pairs have very liquid markets that trade 24 hours a day every business day, and they have very narrow spreads.
Minors and Exotics
Currency pairs that are not associated with the U.S. dollar are referred to as minor currencies or crosses. These pairs have slightly wider spreads and are not as liquid as the majors, but they are sufficiently liquid markets nonetheless. The crosses that trade the most volume are among the currency pairs in which the individual currencies are also majors. Some examples of crosses include the EUR/GBP, GBP/JPY and EUR/CHF.
Exotic currencies pairs include currencies of emerging markets. These pairs are not as liquid, and the spreads are much wider. An example of an exotic currency pair is the USD/SGD (U.S. dollar/Singapore dollar).