Efficient Frontier

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What is the 'Efficient Frontier'

The efficient frontier is the set of optimal portfolios that offers the highest expected return for a defined level of risk or the lowest risk for a given level of expected return. Portfolios that lie below the efficient frontier are sub-optimal, because they do not provide enough return for the level of risk. Portfolios that cluster to the right of the efficient frontier are also sub-optimal, because they have a higher level of risk for the defined rate of return.

BREAKING DOWN 'Efficient Frontier'

Since the efficient frontier is curved, rather than linear, a key finding of the concept was the benefit of diversification. Optimal portfolios that comprise the efficient frontier tend to have a higher degree of diversification than the sub-optimal ones, which are typically less diversified. The efficient frontier concept was introduced by Nobel Laureate Harry Markowitz in 1952 and is a cornerstone of modern portfolio theory.

Optimal Portfolio

One assumption in investing is that a higher degree of risk means a higher potential return. Conversely, investors who take on a low degree of risk have a low potential return. According to Markowitz's theory, there is an optimal portfolio that could be designed with a perfect balance between risk and return. The optimal portfolio does not simply include securities with the highest potential returns or low-risk securities. The optimal portfolio aims to balance securities with the greatest potential returns with an acceptable degree of risk or securities with the lowest degree of risk for a given level of potential return. The points on the plot of risk versus expected returns where optimal portfolios lie is known as the efficient frontier.

Selecting Investments

Assume a risk-seeking investor uses the efficient frontier to select investments. The investor would select securities that lie on the right end of the efficient frontier. The right end of the efficient frontier includes securities that are expected to have a high degree of risk coupled with high potential returns, which is suitable for highly risk-tolerant investors. Conversely, securities that lie on the left end of the efficient frontier would be suitable for risk-averse investors.


The efficient frontier and modern portfolio theory have many assumptions that may not properly represent reality. For example, one of the assumptions is that asset returns follow a normal distribution. In reality, securities may experience returns that are more than three standard deviations away from the mean more than 0.03% of the observed values. Consequently, asset returns are said to follow a leptokurtic distribution, or heavy tailed distribution.

Additionally, Markowitz's theory assumes investors are rational and avoid risk when possible, there are not large enough investors to influence market prices, and investors have unlimited access to borrowing and lending money at the risk-free interest rate. However, the market includes irrational and risk-seeking investors, large market participants who could influence market prices, and investors do not have unlimited access to borrowing and lending money.

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