High Minus Low - HML


DEFINITION of 'High Minus Low - HML'

One of three factors in the Fama and French asset pricing model. HML accounts for the spread in returns between value and growth stocks. HML argues that companies with high book-to-market ratios (value stocks) outperform those with low ones (growth stocks).

Also referred to as the "value premium".

BREAKING DOWN 'High Minus Low - HML'

Fama and French's Three Factor model is often used to evaluate a portfolio manager's returns. A typical measure of good management is large excess returns.

The model's three factors, including HML, attempt to explain excess returns in a manager's portfolio. Specifically, HML shows whether a manager was relying on the value premium (investing in stocks with high book-to-market ratios) to earn an abnormal return. If the manager was buying only value stocks, the model regression would show a positive relation to the HML factor, which explains that the portfolios returns are accredited only to the value premium. Because the model can explain more of the portfolio's return, the original excess return of the manager decreases.

  1. Small-Value Stock

    A description of stock where the underlying company has a small ...
  2. Excess Returns

    Investment returns from a security or portfolio that exceed a ...
  3. Fama And French Three Factor Model

    A factor model that expands on the capital asset pricing model ...
  4. Book-To-Market Ratio

    A ratio used to find the value of a company by comparing the ...
  5. Value Stock

    A stock that tends to trade at a lower price relative to it's ...
  6. Growth Stock

    Shares in a company whose earnings are expected to grow at an ...
Related Articles
  1. Bonds & Fixed Income

    Achieving Better Returns In Your Portfolio

    We look at three risk factors that best explain the bulk of equity performance.
  2. Forex Education

    Using The Price-To-Book Ratio To Evaluate Companies

    The P/B ratio can be an easy way to determine a company's value, but it isn't magic!
  3. Options & Futures

    Financial Concepts

    Diversification? Optimal portfolio theory? Read this tutorial and these and other financial concepts will be made clear.
  4. Investing

    Where the Price is Right for Dividends

    There are two broad schools of thought for equity income investing: The first pays the highest dividend yields and the second focuses on healthy yields.
  5. Personal Finance

    How Tech Can Help with 3 Behavioral Finance Biases

    Even if you’re a finance or statistics expert, you’re not immune to common decision-making mistakes that can negatively impact your finances.
  6. Technical Indicators

    Using Pivot Points For Predictions

    Learn one of the most common methods of finding support and resistance levels.
  7. Investing Basics

    5 Tips For Diversifying Your Portfolio

    A diversified portfolio will protect you in a tough market. Get some solid tips here!
  8. Entrepreneurship

    Identifying And Managing Business Risks

    There are a lot of risks associated with running a business, but there are an equal number of ways to prepare for and manage them.
  9. Forex Education

    Explaining Uncovered Interest Rate Parity

    Uncovered interest rate parity is when the difference in interest rates between two nations is equal to the expected change in exchange rates.
  10. Fundamental Analysis

    Using Decision Trees In Finance

    A decision tree provides a comprehensive framework to review the alternative scenarios and consequences a decision may lead to.
  1. Can working capital be too high?

    A company's working capital ratio can be too high in the sense that an excessively high ratio is generally considered an ... Read Full Answer >>
  2. How do I use discounted cash flow (DCF) to value stock?

    Discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis can be a very helpful tool for analysts and investors in equity valuation. It provides ... Read Full Answer >>
  3. When does the fixed charge coverage ratio suggest that a company should stop borrowing ...

    Since the fixed charge coverage ratio indicates the number of times a company is capable of making its fixed charge payments ... Read Full Answer >>
  4. What is the utility function and how is it calculated?

    In economics, utility function is an important concept that measures preferences over a set of goods and services. Utility ... Read Full Answer >>
  5. How are American Depository Receipts (ADRs) priced?

    The price of an American depositary receipt (ADR) is determined by the bank or other financial institution that issues it. ... Read Full Answer >>
  6. How can a company execute a tax-free spin-off?

    The two commonly used methods for doing a tax-free spinoff are either to distribute shares of the spinoff company to existing ... Read Full Answer >>

You May Also Like

Hot Definitions
  1. Barefoot Pilgrim

    A slang term for an unsophisticated investor who loses all of his or her wealth by trading equities in the stock market. ...
  2. Quick Ratio

    The quick ratio is an indicator of a company’s short-term liquidity. The quick ratio measures a company’s ability to meet ...
  3. Black Tuesday

    October 29, 1929, when the DJIA fell 12% - one of the largest one-day drops in stock market history. More than 16 million ...
  4. Black Monday

    October 19, 1987, when the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) lost almost 22% in a single day. That event marked the beginning ...
  5. Monetary Policy

    Monetary policy is the actions of a central bank, currency board or other regulatory committee that determine the size and ...
  6. Indemnity

    Indemnity is compensation for damages or loss. Indemnity in the legal sense may also refer to an exemption from liability ...
Trading Center