What are 'Holding Costs'
Holding costs are the costs associated with storing inventory that remains unsold, and these costs are one component of total inventory costs, along with ordering costs and shortage costs. A firm’s holding costs include the cost of goods damaged or spoiled, as well as the cost of storage space, labor and insurance. Minimizing inventory costs is an important supply chain management strategy.
!--break--Inventory and accounts receivable are two asset accounts that may require a large amount of cash, and decisions about inventory spending reduce the amount of cash available for other purposes. For example, increasing the inventory balance by $10,000 means that less cash is available to operate the business each month. This situation is considered an opportunity cost.
Factoring in Inventory Turnover
One way to ensure a company has sufficient cash to operate is to sell inventory and collect payments quickly. The sooner cash is collected from customers, the less total cash the firm must come up with to continue operations. Businesses measure the frequency of cash collections using the inventory turnover ratio, which is (cost of goods sold) / (inventory). For example, a company that has $1 million in cost of goods sold and an inventory balance of $200,000 has a turnover ratio of 5. The goal is to increase sales and reduce the required amount of inventory, so that the turnover ratio increases.
Examples of Holding Costs
Assume that ABC Manufacturing produces furniture that is stored in a warehouse and then shipped to retailers. ABC must either lease or purchase warehouse space, and pay for utilities, insurance and security for the location. The company must also pay staff to move inventory into the warehouse, and then load the sold merchandise onto trucks for shipping. The firm incurs some risk that the furniture may be damaged as it is moved into and out of the warehouse.
How to Calculate the Reorder Point
Another important strategy to minimize holding costs and other inventory spending is to calculate a reorder point, or the level of inventory that alerts the company to order more inventory from a supplier. An accurate reorder point allows the firm to fill customer orders without overspending on inventory. Companies that use a recorder point avoid shortage costs, which is the risk of losing a customer order due to low inventory levels. The reorder point considers how long it takes to receive an order from a supplier, and the weekly or monthly level of product sales. A reorder point also helps the business compute the economic order quantity (EOQ), or the ideal amount of inventory that should be ordered from a supplier. EOQ can be calculated using inventory software.