What is an 'Interest Rate Swap'
An interest rate swap is an agreement between two counterparties in which one stream of future interest payments is exchanged for another based on a specified principal amount. Interest rate swaps usually involve the exchange a fixed interest rate for a floating rate, or vice versa, to reduce or increase exposure to fluctuations in interest rates or to obtain a marginally lower interest rate than would have been possible without the swap.
BREAKING DOWN 'Interest Rate Swap'
A swap can also involve the exchange of one type of floating rate for another, which is called a basis swap.Interest rate swaps are the exchange of one set of cash flows for another. Because they trade over the counter (OTC), the contracts are between two or more parties according to their desired specifications and can be customized in many different ways. Swaps are often utilized if a company can borrow money easily at one type of interest rate but prefers a different type.
Fixed to Floating
For example, consider a company named TSI that can issue a bond at a very attractive fixed interest rate to its investors. The company's management feels that it can get a better cash flow from a floating rate. In this case, TSI can enter into a swap with a bank counterparty in which the company receives a fixed rate and pays a floating rate. The swap is structured to match the maturity and cash flow of the fixedrate bond, and the two fixedrate payment streams are netted. TSI and the bank choose the preferred floatingrate index, which is usually LIBOR for a one, three or sixmonth maturity. TSI then receives LIBOR plus or minus a spread that reflects both interest rate conditions in the market and its credit rating.
Floating to Fixed
A company that does not have access to a fixedrate loan may borrow at a floating rate and enter into a swap to achieve a fixed rate. The floatingrate tenor, reset and payment dates on the loan are mirrored on the swap and netted. The fixedrate leg of the swap becomes the company's borrowing rate.
Float to Float
Companies sometimes enter into a swap to change the type or tenor of the floating rate index that they pay; this is known as a basis swap. A company can swap from threemonth LIBOR to sixmonth LIBOR, for example, either because the rate is more attractive or it matches other payment flows. A company can also switch to a different index, such as the federal funds rate, commercial paper or the Treasury bill rate.

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What are interest rate swaps on the OTC market?
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Can individual investors profit from interest rate swaps?
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How do companies benefit from interest rate and currency swaps?
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Do interest rate swaps trade on the open market?
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What is an absolute rate?
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Can bond traders trade on interest rate swaps?
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