What is an 'Interest Rate Swap'
An interest rate swap is an agreement between two counterparties in which one stream of future interest payments is exchanged for another based on a specified principal amount. Interest rate swaps usually involve the exchange of a fixed interest rate for a floating rate, or vice versa, to reduce or increase exposure to fluctuations in interest rates or to obtain a marginally lower interest rate than would have been possible without the swap.
BREAKING DOWN 'Interest Rate Swap'
A swap can also involve the exchange of one type of floating rate for another, which is called a basis swap.
Interest rate swaps are the exchange of one set of cash flows for another. Because they trade over the counter (OTC), the contracts are between two or more parties according to their desired specifications and can be customized in many different ways. Swaps are often utilized if a company can borrow money easily at one type of interest rate but prefers a different type.
Fixed to Floating
For example, consider a company named TSI that can issue a bond at a very attractive fixed interest rate to its investors. The company's management feels that it can get a better cash flow from a floating rate. In this case, TSI can enter into a swap with a counterparty bank in which the company receives a fixed rate and pays a floating rate. The swap is structured to match the maturity and cash flow of the fixed-rate bond, and the two fixed-rate payment streams are netted. TSI and the bank choose the preferred floating-rate index, which is usually LIBOR for a one-, three- or six-month maturity. TSI then receives LIBOR plus or minus a spread that reflects both interest rate conditions in the market and its credit rating.
Floating to Fixed
A company that does not have access to a fixed-rate loan may borrow at a floating rate and enter into a swap to achieve a fixed rate. The floating-rate tenor, reset and payment dates on the loan are mirrored on the swap and netted. The fixed-rate leg of the swap becomes the company's borrowing rate.
Float to Float
Companies sometimes enter into a swap to change the type or tenor of the floating rate index that they pay; this is known as a basis swap. A company can swap from three-month LIBOR to six-month LIBOR, for example, either because the rate is more attractive or it matches other payment flows. A company can also switch to a different index, such as the federal funds rate, commercial paper or the Treasury bill rate.