What is the 'Laffer Curve'
The Laffer Curve is a theory developed by supply-side economist Arthur Laffer to show the relationship between tax rates and the amount of tax revenue collected by governments. The curve is used to illustrate Laffer’s main premise that the more an activity such as production is taxed, the less of it is generated. Likewise, the less an activity is taxed, the more of it is generated.
BREAKING DOWN 'Laffer Curve'
The Laffer Curve suggests that, as taxes increase from low levels, tax revenue collected by the government also increases. It also shows that tax rates increasing after a certain point (T*) would cause people not to work as hard or not at all, thereby reducing tax revenue. Eventually, if tax rates reached 100%, shown as the far right on his curve, all people would choose not to work because everything they earned would go to the government. Governments would like to be at point T*, because it is the point at which the government collects maximum amount of tax revenue while people continue to work hard.
The Laffer Curve Explained
The first presentation of the Laffer Curve was performed on a paper napkin back in 1974, when its author was speaking with senior staff members of President Gerald Ford’s administration about the state of economic malaise that had engulfed the country. At the time, most economists were espousing a Keynesian approach to solving the problem, which advocated more government spending to stimulate demand for products. Laffer countered that the problem isn’t too little demand. Rather, it was the burden of heavy taxes and regulations that created impediments to production, which impacts government revenue.
Laffer argues that the more money taken from a business in the form of taxes, the less money it has to invest in the business. A business is more likely to find ways to protect its capital from taxation, or to relocate all or a part of its operations overseas. Investors are less likely to risk their own capital if a larger percentage of their profits are taken. When workers see increasing portion of their paychecks taken due to increased efforts on their part, they will lose the incentive to work harder. For every type of tax, there is a threshold rate above which the incentive to produce more diminishes, thereby reducing the amount of revenue the government receives.
The theory later became a cornerstone of President Ronald Reagan’s economic policy, which resulted in one of the biggest tax cuts in history. During his time in office, tax revenues received by the government increased from $517 billion in 1980 to $909 billion in 1988.