What is 'Market Risk Premium'
The market risk premium is the difference between the expected return on a market portfolio and the riskfree rate. Market risk premium is equal to the slope of the security market line (SML), a graphical representation of the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). CAPM measures required rate of return on equity investments, and it is an important element of modern portfolio theory and discounted cash flow valuation.
Market risk premium describes the relationship between returns from an equity market portfolio and treasury bond yields. The risk premium reflects required returns, historical returns and expected returns. The historical market risk premium will be the same for all investors since the value is based on what actually happened. The required and expected market premiums, however, will differ from investor to investor based on risk tolerance and investing styles.
Theory
Investors require compensation for risk and opportunity cost. The riskfree rate is a theoretical interest rate that would be paid by an investment with zero risk, and longterm yields on U.S. treasuries have traditionally been used as a proxy for the riskfree rate because of the low default risk. Treasuries have historically had relatively low yields as a result of this assumed reliability. Equity market returns are based on expected returns on a broad benchmark index such as the Standard & Poor's 500 index of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Real equity returns fluctuate with operational performance of the underlying business, and the market pricing for these securities reflects this fact. Historical return rates have fluctuated as the economy matures and endures cycles, but conventional knowledge has generally estimated longterm potential of approximately 8% annually. As of 2016, some economists are calling for a reduction in this assumed rate, though opinions on the topic diverge. Investors demand a premium on their equity investment return relative to lower risk alternatives because their capital is more jeopardized, which leads to the equity risk premium.
Calculation and Application
The market risk premium can be calculated by subtracting the riskfree rate from the expected equity market return, providing a quantitative measure of the extra return demanded by market participants for increased risk. Once calculated, the equity risk premium can be used in important calculations such as CAPM. Between 1926 and 2014, the S&P 500 exhibited a 10.5% compounding annual rate of return, while the 30day treasury bill compounded at 5.1%. This indicates a market risk premium of 5.4%, based on these parameters.
The required rate of return for an individual asset can be calculated by multiplying the asset's beta coefficient by the market coefficient, then adding back the riskfree rate. This is often used as the discount rate in discounted cash flow, a popular valuation model.
BREAKING DOWN 'Market Risk Premium'

Risk Premium
The return in excess of the riskfree rate of return that an ... 
Capital Asset Pricing Model  CAPM
A model that describes the relationship between risk and expected ... 
Equity Risk Premium
The excess return that investing in the stock market provides ... 
RiskFree Return
The theoretical rate of return attributed to an investment with ... 
RiskFree Rate Of Return
The theoretical rate of return of an investment with zero risk. ... 
Capital Allocation Line  CAL
A line created in a graph of all possible combinations of risky ...

Investing
Understanding Market Risk Premium
Market risk premium is equal to the expected return on an investment minus the riskfree rate. The riskfree rate is the minimum rate investors could expect to receive on an investment if it ... 
Investing
How to Calculate Risk Premium
Think of a risk premium as a form of hazard pay for risky investments. 
Investing
What Investors Should Know About Interest Rates
Understanding interest rates helps you answer the fundamental question of where to put your money. 
Investing
The Capital Asset Pricing Model: an Overview
CAPM helps you determine what return you deserve for putting your money at risk. 
Managing Wealth
How Interest Rates Affect Property Values
Along with their impact on mortgages, interest rates affect capital flows, the supply and demand for capital, and an investorâ€™s required rate of return. 
Investing
The EquityRisk Premium: More Risk For Higher Returns
Learn how the expected extra return on stocks is measured and why academic studies usually estimate a low premium. 
Investing
Valuation Models: Appleâ€™s Stock Analysis With CAPM
The capital asset pricing model, or the CAPM, estimates the expected return of an asset based on the systematic risk of the assetâ€™s return. 
Investing
The Capital Asset Pricing (CAPM) Model: Pros and Cons
CAPM, while criticized for its unrealistic assumptions, provides a more useful outcome than either the DDM or WACC in many situations. 
Investing
How to Calculate Required Rate of Return
The required rate of return is used by investors and corporations to evaluate investments. Find out how to calculate it. 
Investing
How Safe Are U.S. Bonds?
U.S. Treasury securities are often described as riskfree investments, but that is just not true.

Is market risk premium the same for all investors and investments?
Learn about how market risk premiums are determined, how they are calculated, why some assets require higher premiums and ... Read Answer >> 
What is the historical market risk premium?
Learn what the historical market risk premium is and the different figures that result from an analyst's choice of calculations ... Read Answer >> 
How is the expected market return determined when calculating market risk premium?
Find out how the expected market return rate is determined when calculating market risk premium and how these figures are ... Read Answer >> 
How accurate is the equity risk premium in evaluating a stock?
Learn about the drawbacks of using the equity risk premium to evaluate a stock, and understand how it is calculated using ... Read Answer >> 
Is the market risk premium the same for stocks and bonds?
Take a look at historical equity risk premium and credit spreads in the United States, which suggest that equities carry ... Read Answer >> 
What is the correlation between equity risk premium and risk?
Learn about the relationship between the riskfree rate of return and the equity risk premium, and understand how the riskfree ... Read Answer >>