What is 'Mid Cap'
A mid-cap company is a company with a market capitalization between $2 billion and $10 billion. As the name implies, a mid-cap company falls in the middle of the pack between large-cap and small-cap companies. Classifications such as large-cap, mid-cap and small-cap are only approximations and may change over time.
BREAKING DOWN 'Mid Cap'
There are two main ways a company can raise capital when needed: through debt or equity. Debt must be paid back but can generally be borrowed at a lower rate than equity due to tax advantages. Equity may cost more, but it does not need to be paid back in times of crisis. As a result, companies strive to strike a balance between debt and equity. This balance is referred to as a firm's capital structure. Capital structure, especially equity capital structure, can tell investors a lot about the growth prospects for a company.
One way to gain insights about a company's capital structure and market depth is by calculating its market capitalization. Companies with low market capitalization have $2 billion in market capitalization or less. Large-capitalization firms have over $10 billion in market capitalization, and mid-cap firms fall in between, ranging from $2 billion to $10 billion in market capitalization.
While market capitalization depends on market price, a company with a stock priced above $10 is not necessarily a mid-cap stock. To calculate market capitalization, analysts multiply the current market price by the current number of shares outstanding. For example, if company A has 10 billion shares outstanding at a price of $1, it has a market capitalization of $10 billion. Company B has 1 billion shares outstanding at a price of $5, so company B has a market capitalization of $5 billion. Even though company A has a lower stock price, it has a higher market capitalization than company B. Company B may have the higher stock price, but it has one-tenth of the shares outstanding.
The Benefits of Mid-Caps
Most financial advisors suggest that the key to minimizing risk is a well-diversified portfolio; investors should have a mix of low-, mid- and large-cap stocks. However, some investors see mid-cap stocks as a way to diversify risk as well. Small-cap stocks offer the most growth potential, but that growth comes with the most risk. Large-cap stocks offer the most stability, but they offer lower growth prospects. Mid-cap stocks represent a hybrid of the two, providing a balance of growth and stability.