What is the 'Pac-Man Defense'
The Pac-Man defense is a defensive tactic used by a targeted firm in a hostile takeover situation. In a Pac-Man defense, the target firm then tries to acquire the company that has made the hostile takeover attempt. In an attempt to scare off the would-be acquirers, the takeover target may use any method to acquire the other company, including dipping into its war chest for cash to buy a majority stake in the other company.
BREAKING DOWN 'Pac-Man Defense'A smaller or equivalent company may avoid a hostile takeover by using the Pac-Man defense.
Pac-Man Game Strategy
In the Pac-Man game, the player has several ghosts chasing and trying to eliminate it. If the player eats a power pellet, he may turn around and eat the ghosts.
Companies may use a similar approach as a means of avoiding a hostile takeover. During the acquiring phase, the takeover company begins a large-scale purchase of the target company’s stocks for gaining control of the target company. As a counter-strategy, the target company may begin buying back its shares and purchasing shares of the takeover company.
A company’s war chest is the buffer of cash kept aside for uncertain adverse events, such as taking over a company. A war chest is typically invested in liquid assets such as Treasury bills and bank deposits that are available on demand.
Disadvantages of the Pac-Man Defense
The Pac-Man defense is an expensive strategy that may increase debts for the target company. Shareholders may suffer losses or lower dividends in future years.
Examples of the Pac-Man Defense
In 1982, Bendix Corporation attempted to overtake Martin Marietta by purchasing a controlling amount of its stocks. Bendix Corporation became the owner of the company on paper. However, Martin Marietta’s management reacted by selling off its chemical, cement and aluminum divisions and borrowing over $1 billion to counter the acquisition. The conflict resulted in Allied Corporation acquiring Bendix Corporation.
In February 1988, after a month-long takeover fight that began when E-II Holdings Inc. made an offer for American Brands Inc., American Brands bought E-II for $2.7 billion. American Brands financed the merger through existing lines of credit and a private placement of commercial paper.
In October 2013, Jos. A. Bank launched a bid to take over Men’s Wearhouse. Men’s Wearhouse rejected the bid and countered with its own offers. During negotiations, Jos. A. Bank bought Eddie Bauer to gain more control in the marketplace. Men’s Wearhouse ended up buying Jos. A. Bank for $1.8 billion.