Pro-Forma Earnings

DEFINITION of 'Pro-Forma Earnings'

Projected earnings based on a set of assumptions and often used to present a business plan (in Latin pro forma means "for the sake of form"). It also refers to earnings which exclude non-recurring items. Pro-forma earnings are not derived by standard GAAP methods.

BREAKING DOWN 'Pro-Forma Earnings'

Items sometimes excluded in pro-forma earnings figures include write-downs, goodwill amortization, depreciation, restructuring and merger costs, interest, taxes, stock based employee pay and other expenses. The company excludes these items with the intent to present its figures more clearly to investors. However, whether or not this is accomplished is debatable. This has spawned such nicknames for pro-forma earnings as EEBS (earnings excluding bad stuff).

Investors should exercise caution when using pro-forma earnings figures in their fundamental analysis. Unlike GAAP earnings, pro-forma earnings do not comply with any standardized rules or regulations. As a result, positive pro-forma earnings can become negative once GAAP requirements are applied and certain items are included in the calculations!

RELATED TERMS
  1. Amortization

    1. The paying off of debt in regular installments over a period ...
  2. Pro-Forma Forecast

    A financial forecast based on pro-forma income statements, balance ...
  3. Non-GAAP Earnings

    An alternative earnings measure of the performance of a company. ...
  4. Earnings

    The amount of profit that a company produces during a specific ...
  5. Annual Report

    1. An annual publication that public corporations must provide ...
  6. Write-Down

    Reducing the book value of an asset because it is overvalued ...
Related Articles
  1. Fundamental Analysis

    Understanding Pro-Forma Earnings

    These figures can either shed light on a company's performance or skew it. Find out why.
  2. Options & Futures

    Core Earnings Strip Away "Creative" Accounting

    This metric is an attempt to counteract creative accounting, but it poses its own set of challenges.
  3. Markets

    Surprising Earnings Results

    Consensus estimates can send stocks spiraling - but are they representing reality?
  4. Fundamental Analysis

    Accretion / Dilution Analysis: A Merger Mystery

    This analysis tool is an effective way to value mergers and acquisitions. The deal's on the table, but should you sign the papers?
  5. Investing Basics

    Inside IPO Roadshows

    Understand more about IPO road shows. Learn the reasons why an IPO road show is important for the success of a company's public offering.
  6. Economics

    Understanding Cost-Volume Profit Analysis

    Business managers use cost-volume profit analysis to gauge the profitability of their company’s products or services.
  7. Fundamental Analysis

    5 Must-Have Metrics For Value Investors

    Focusing on certain fundamental metrics is the best way for value investors to cash in gains. Here are the most important metrics to know.
  8. Fundamental Analysis

    5 Basic Financial Ratios And What They Reveal

    Understanding financial ratios can help investors pick strong stocks and build wealth. Here are five to know.
  9. Investing Basics

    How to Analyze a Company's Inventory

    Discover how to analyze a company's inventory by understanding different types of inventory and doing a quantitative and qualitative assessment of inventory.
  10. Stock Analysis

    Understanding Chipotle's Financials (CMG)

    Learn about Chipotle Mexican Grill and its financial statements, including metrics such as comparable sales, operating margin and returns.
RELATED FAQS
  1. What items are considered liquid assets?

    A liquid asset is cash on hand or an asset that can be readily converted to cash. An asset that can readily be converted ... Read Full Answer >>
  2. What is the formula for calculating EBITDA?

    When analyzing financial fitness, corporate accountants and investors alike closely examine a company's financial statements ... Read Full Answer >>
  3. What is the formula for calculating the debt-to-equity ratio?

    Expressed as a percentage, the debt-to-equity ratio shows the proportion of equity and debt a firm is using to finance its ... Read Full Answer >>
  4. How do I calculate the P/E ratio of a company?

    The price-earnings ratio (P/E ratio) is a valuation measure that compares the level of stock prices to the level of corporate ... Read Full Answer >>
  5. How do you calculate return on equity (ROE)?

    Return on equity (ROE) is a ratio that provides investors insight into how efficiently a company (or more specifically, its ... Read Full Answer >>
  6. How do you calculate working capital?

    Working capital represents the difference between a firm’s current assets and current liabilities. The challenge can be determining ... Read Full Answer >>
Hot Definitions
  1. Inverted Yield Curve

    An interest rate environment in which long-term debt instruments have a lower yield than short-term debt instruments of the ...
  2. Socially Responsible Investment - SRI

    An investment that is considered socially responsible because of the nature of the business the company conducts. Common ...
  3. Presidential Election Cycle (Theory)

    A theory developed by Yale Hirsch that states that U.S. stock markets are weakest in the year following the election of a ...
  4. Super Bowl Indicator

    An indicator based on the belief that a Super Bowl win for a team from the old AFL (AFC division) foretells a decline in ...
  5. Flight To Quality

    The action of investors moving their capital away from riskier investments to the safest possible investment vehicles. This ...
Trading Center