Retention Ratio

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DEFINITION of 'Retention Ratio'

The proportion of earnings kept back in the business as retained earnings. The retention ratio refers to the percentage of net income that is retained to grow the business, rather than being paid out as dividends. It is the opposite of the payout ratio, which measures the percentage of earnings paid out to shareholders as dividends.

On a per-share basis, the retention ratio can be expressed as (1 – Dividends per share / EPS).

retention ratio formula

The retention ratio is 100% for companies that do not pay dividends, and is zero for companies that pay out their entire net income as dividends.

Also known as “plowback ratio.”

BREAKING DOWN 'Retention Ratio'

For example, a company that has EPS of $1.00, and per-share dividends of $0.40, has a dividend payout ratio of 40%, and a retention ratio of 60%.

The retention ratio is typically higher for growth companies that are experiencing rapid increases in revenues and profits. A growth company would prefer to plow earnings back into its business if it believes that it can reward its shareholders by increasing revenues and profits at a faster pace than shareholders could achieve by investing their dividend receipts.

Investors may be willing to forego dividends if a firm has great growth prospects, which is typically the case with companies in sectors such as technology and biotechnology. The retention rate for technology companies in a relatively early stage of development is generally 100%, as they seldom pay dividends. But in mature sectors such as utilities and telecommunications, where investors expect a reasonable dividend, the retention ratio is typically quite low because of the high dividend payout ratio.

The retention ratio may change from one year to the next, depending on the company’s earnings volatility and dividend payment policy. Many blue-chip companies have a policy of paying steadily increasing or at least stable dividends. Companies in defensive sectors such as pharmaceuticals and consumer staples are likely to have more stable payout and retention ratios than energy and commodity companies, whose earnings are more cyclical.

Dividend-paying stocks became all the rage in the low interest-rate environment that prevailed post-recession 2008-09. As an increasing number of companies – even those in sectors that had hitherto not paid dividends, such as gold producers – began paying dividends, their retention rates declined, as investors focused on current income rather than the promise of (higher) potential income down the road.

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