Reverse Stock Split

Definition of 'Reverse Stock Split'


A corporate action in which a company reduces the total number of its outstanding shares. A reverse stock split involves the company dividing its current shares by a number such as 5 or 10, which would be called a 1-for-5 or 1-for-10 split, respectively. A reverse stock split is the opposite of a conventional (forward) stock split, which increases the number of shares outstanding. Similar to a forward stock split, the reverse split does not add any real value to the company. But since the motivation for a reverse split is very different from that for a forward split, the stock’s price moves after a reverse and forward split may be quite divergent. A reverse stock split is also known as a stock consolidation or share rollback.

Investopedia explains 'Reverse Stock Split'


If a company has 200 million shares outstanding and the shares are trading at 20 cents each, a 1-for-10 reverse split would reduce the number of shares to 20 million, while the shares should trade at about $2. Note that the company’s market capitalization pre-split and post-split should – theoretically at least – be unchanged at $40 million.

But in the real world, a stock that has undergone a reverse split may well come under renewed selling pressure. In the above instance, if the stock declines to a price of $1.80 after the reverse split, the company’s market cap would now be $36 million. Conversely, with a forward split, the stock may gain post-split because it is perceived as a success and its lower price might attract more investors.

In the vast majority of cases, a reverse split is undertaken to fulfill exchange listing requirements. An exchange generally specifies a minimum bid price for a stock to be listed. If the stock falls below this bid price, it risks being delisted. Exchanges temporarily suspend this minimum price requirement during uncertain times; for example, the NYSE and Nasdaq suspended the minimum $1 price requirement for stocks listed during the 2008-09 bear market. However, during normal business times, a company whose stock price has declined precipitously over the years may have little choice but to undergo a reverse stock split to maintain its exchange listing.

A secondary benefit of a reverse split is that by reducing the shares outstanding and share float, the stock becomes harder to borrow, making it difficult for short sellers to short the stock. The limited liquidity may also widen the bid-ask spread, which in turn deters trading and short selling.

The ratios associated with reverse splits are typically higher than those for forward splits, with some splits done on a 1-for-10, 1-for-50 or even 1-for-100 basis.


Filed Under:

Related Video for 'Reverse Stock Split'

comments powered by Disqus
Hot Definitions
  1. Quanto Swap

    A swap with varying combinations of interest rate, currency and equity swap features, where payments are based on the movement of two different countries' interest rates. This is also referred to as a differential or "diff" swap.
  2. Genuine Progress Indicator - GPI

    A metric used to measure the economic growth of a country. It is often considered as a replacement to the more well known gross domestic product (GDP) economic indicator. The GPI indicator takes everything the GDP uses into account, but also adds other figures that represent the cost of the negative effects related to economic activity (such as the cost of crime, cost of ozone depletion and cost of resource depletion, among others).
  3. Accelerated Share Repurchase - ASR

    A specific method by which corporations can repurchase outstanding shares of their stock. The accelerated share repurchase (ASR) is usually accomplished by the corporation purchasing shares of its stock from an investment bank. The investment bank borrows the shares from clients or share lenders and sells them to the company.
  4. Microeconomic Pricing Model

    A model of the way prices are set within a market for a given good. According to this model, prices are set based on the balance of supply and demand in the market. In general, profit incentives are said to resemble an "invisible hand" that guides competing participants to an equilibrium price. The demand curve in this model is determined by consumers attempting to maximize their utility, given their budget.
  5. Centralized Market

    A financial market structure that consists of having all orders routed to one central exchange with no other competing market. The quoted prices of the various securities listed on the exchange represent the only price that is available to investors seeking to buy or sell the specific asset.
  6. Balanced Investment Strategy

    A portfolio allocation and management method aimed at balancing risk and return. Such portfolios are generally divided equally between equities and fixed-income securities.
Trading Center