By Bob Schneider
As implied earlier, today's electronic accounting systems tend to obscure the traditional forms of the accounting cycle. Nevertheless, the same basic process that bookkeepers and accountants used to perform by hand are present in today's accounting software. Here are the steps in the accounting cycle:
(1) Identify the transaction from source documents, like purchase orders, loan agreements, invoices, etc.
(2) Record the transaction as a journal entry (see the Double-Entry Bookkeeping Section above).
(3) Post the entry in the individual accounts in ledgers. Traditionally, the accounts have been represented as Ts, or so-called T-accounts, with debits on the left and credits on the right.
(4) At the end of the reporting period (usually the end of the month), create a preliminary trial balance of all the accounts by (a) netting all the debits and credits in each account to calculate their balances and (b) totaling all the left-side (i.e, debit) balances and right-side (i.e., credit) balances. The two columns should be equal.
(5) Make additional adjusting entries that are not generated through specific source documents. For example, depreciation expense is periodically recorded for items like equipment to account for the use of the asset and the loss of its value over time.
(6) Create an adjusted trial balance of the accounts. Once again, the left-side and right-side entries - i.e. debits and credits - must total to the same amount. (To learn more see, Fundamental Analysis: The Balance Sheet.)
(7) Combine the sums in the various accounts and present them in financial statements created for both internal and external use.
(8) Close the books for the current month by recording the necessary reversing entries to start fresh in the new period (usually the next month).
Nearly all companies create end-of-year financial reports, and a new set of books is begun each year. Depending on the nature of the company and its size, financial reports can be prepared at much more frequent (even daily) intervals. The SEC requires public companies to file financial reports on both a quarterly and yearly basis.
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