Options Greeks: Options and Risk Parameters
by John Summa (Contact Author  Biography)
This segment of the options Greeks tutorial will summarize the key Greeks and their roles in the determination of risk and reward in options trading. Whether you trade options on futures or options on equities and ETFs, these concepts are transferable, so this tutorial will help all new and experienced options traders get up to speed.
There are five essential Greeks, and a sixth that is sometimes used by traders.
Delta
Delta for individual options, and position Delta for strategies involving combinations of positions, are measures of risk from a move of the underlying price. For example, if you buy an atthemoney call or put, it will have a Delta of approximately 0.5, meaning that if the underlying stock price moves 1 point, the option price will change by 0.5 points (all other things remaining the same). If the price moves up, the call will increase by 0.5 points and the put will decrease by 0.5 points. While a 0.5 Delta is for options atthemoney, the range of Delta values will run from 0 to 1.0 (1.0 being a long stock equivalent position) and from 1.0 to 0 for puts (with 1.0 being an equivalent short stock position).
In the next part of this tutorial, this simple concept will be expanded to include positive and negative position Delta (where individual Deltas of options are merged in a combination strategy) in most of the popular options strategies.
Vega
When any position is taken in options, not only is there risk from changes in the underlying but there is risk from changes in implied volatility. Vega is the measure of that risk. When the underlying changes, or even if it does not in some cases, implied volatility levels may change. Whether large or small, any change in the levels of implied volatility will have an impact on unrealized profit/loss in a strategy. Some strategies are long volatility and others are short volatility, while some can be constructed to be neutral volatility. For example, a put that is purchased is long volatility, which means the value increases when volatility increases and falls when volatility drops (assuming the underlying price remains the same). Conversely, a put that is sold (naked) is short volatility (the position loses value if the volatility increases). When a strategy is long volatility, it has a positive position Vega value and when short volatility, its position Vega is negative. When the volatility risk has been neutralized, position Vega will be neither positive nor negative.
Theta
Theta is a measure of the rate of time premium decay and it is always negative (leaving position Theta aside for now). Anybody who has purchased an option knows what Theta is, since it is one of the most difficult hurdles to surmount for buyers. As soon as you own an option (a wasting asset), the clock starts ticking, and with each tick the amount of time value remaining on the option decreases, other things remaining the same. Owners of these wasting assets take the position because they believe the underlying stock or futures will make a move quick enough to put a profit on the option position before the clock has ticked too long. In other words, Delta beats Theta and the trade can be closed profitably. When Theta beats Delta, the seller of the option would show gains. This tug of war between Delta and Theta characterizes the experience of many traders, whether long (purchasers) or short (sellers) of options.
Gamma
Delta measures the change in price of an option resulting from the change in the underlying price. However, Delta is not a constant. When the underlying moves so does the Delta value on any option. This rate of change of Delta resulting from movement of the underlying is known as Gamma. And Gamma is largest for options that are atthemoney, while smallest for those options that are deepest in and outofthemoney. Gammas that get too big are risky for traders, but they also hold potential for largesize gains. Gammas can get very large as expiration nears, particularly on the last trading day for nearthemoney options.
When interest rates rise, call prices will rise and put prices will fall. Just the reverse occurs when interest rates fall.
Positive for calls and negative for puts, the
Position Greeks  If Positive Value (+)  If Negative Value () 
Delta  Long the Underlying  Short the Underlying 
Vega  Long Volatility (Gains if IV Rises)  Short Volatility (Gains if IV Falls) 
Theta  Gains From Time Value Decay  Loses From Time Value Decay 
Gamma  Net Long Puts/Calls  Net Short Puts/Calls 
Calls Increase in Value W/ Interest Rates Rise  Put Decrease in Value W/ Interest Rate Rise 
Figure 1: Greeks and what they tell us about potential changes in options valuation 
One other Greek is known as the Gamma of the Gamma, which measures the rate of change of the rate of change of Delta. Not often used by strategists, it may become an important risk measure of extremely volatile commodities or stocks, which have potential for large changes in Delta.
In terms of position Greeks, a strategy can have a positive or negative value. In subsequent tutorial segments covering each of the Greeks, the positive and negative position values for each strategy will be identified and related to potential risk and reward scenarios. Figure 1 presents a summary of the essential characteristics of the Greeks in terms of what they tell us about potential changes in options valuation. For example, a long (positive) Vega position will experience gains from a rise in volatility, and a short (negative) Delta position will benefit from a decline in the underlying, other things remaining the same.
Last, by altering ratios of options in a complex strategy (among other adjustments), a strategist can neutralize risk from the Greeks. However, there are limitations to such an approach, which will be explored in subsequent parts of this tutorial. (For more, see Getting To Know The Greeks.)
Conclusion
A summary of the risk measures known as the Greeks is presented, noting how each expresses the expected changes in an option's price resulting from changes in the underlying (Delta), volatility (Vega), time value decay (Theta), interest rates (
Options Greeks: Delta Risk and Reward

PutCall Parity
A principle that defines the relationship between the price of ... 
Alpha
Alpha is used in finance to represent two things: 1. a measure ... 
Maturity
The period of time for which a financial instrument remains outstanding. ... 
Employee Stock Option  ESO
A stock option granted to specified employees of a company. ESOs ... 
Capitalization Rate
The rate of return on a real estate investment property based ... 
Linear Relationship
A statistical term used to describe the directly proportional ...

Can mutual funds invest in options and futures?
Mutual funds invest in not only stocks and fixedincome securities but also options and futures. There exists a separate ... Read Full Answer >> 
What is the utility function and how is it calculated?
In economics, utility function is an important concept that measures preferences over a set of goods and services. Utility ... Read Full Answer >> 
How does a forward contract differ from a call option?
Forward contracts and call options are different financial instruments that allow two parties to purchase or sell assets ... Read Full Answer >> 
What are common delta hedging strategies?
The term delta refers to the change in price of an underlying stock or exchangetraded fund (ETF) as compared to the corresponding ... Read Full Answer >> 
How do I determine the breakeven point for a short put?
The breakeven point for a short put is the strike price of the option minus the premium. Selling puts is a way for traders ... Read Full Answer >> 
What options strategies are best suited for investing in the retail sector?
Retail is a broad sector whose seven discrete segments all exhibit greater volatility than the broader market. The sector ... Read Full Answer >>