The two components of an option premium are the intrinsic value and the time value. The intrinsic value is the difference between the underlying's price and the strike price. Specifically, the intrinsic value for a call option is equal to the underlying price minus the strike price; for a put option, the intrinsic value is the strike price minus the underlying price

Intrinsic Value (Call) = Underlying Price – Strike Price
Intrinsic Value (Put) = Strike Price – Underlying Price

By definition, the only options that have intrinsic value are those that are in-the-money. For calls, in-the-money refers to options where the exercise (or strike) price is less than the current underlying price. A put option is in-the-money if its strike price is greater than the current underlying price.

In-the-Money (Call) = Strike Price < Underlying Price
In-the-Money (Put) = Strike Price > Underlying Price

Any premium that is in excess of the option's intrinsic value is referred to as time value. For example, assume a call option has a total premium of $9.00 (this means that the buyer pays, and the seller receives, $9.00 for each share of stock or $900 for the contract, which is equal to 100 shares). If the option has an intrinsic value of $7.00, its time value would be $2.00 ($9.00 - $7.00 = $2.00).

Time Value = Premium – Intrinsic Value

In general, the more time to expiration, the greater the time value of the option. It represents the amount of time that the option position has to become more profitable due to a favorable move in the underlying price. In general, investors are willing to pay a higher premium for more time (assuming the different options have the same exercise price), since time increases the likelihood that the position can become profitable. Time value decreases over time and decays to zero at expiration. This phenomenon is known as time decay.

An option premium, therefore, is equal to its intrinsic value plus its time value.

Option Premium = Intrinsic Value + Time Value

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