Options Basics: What Are Options?
AAA
  1. Options Basics: Introduction
  2. Options Basics: What Are Options?
  3. Options Basics: Why Use Options?
  4. Options Basics: How Options Work
  5. Options Basics: Types Of Options
  6. Options Basics: How To Read An Options Table
  7. Options Basics: Conclusion

Options Basics: What Are Options?

An option is a contract that gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset at a specific price on or before a certain date. An option, just like a stock or bond, is a security. It is also a binding contract with strictly defined terms and properties.

Still confused? The idea behind an option is present in many everyday situations. Say, for example, that you discover a house that you'd love to purchase. Unfortunately, you won't have the cash to buy it for another three months. You talk to the owner and negotiate a deal that gives you an option to buy the house in three months for a price of $200,000. The owner agrees, but for this option, you pay a price of $3,000.

Now, consider two theoretical situations that might arise:

  1. It's discovered that the house is actually the true birthplace of Elvis! As a result, the market value of the house skyrockets to $1 million. Because the owner sold you the option, he is obligated to sell you the house for $200,000. In the end, you stand to make a profit of $797,000 ($1 million - $200,000 - $3,000).
  2. While touring the house, you discover not only that the walls are chock-full of asbestos, but also that the ghost of Henry VII haunts the master bedroom; furthermore, a family of super-intelligent rats have built a fortress in the basement. Though you originally thought you had found the house of your dreams, you now consider it worthless. On the upside, because you bought an option, you are under no obligation to go through with the sale. Of course, you still lose the $3,000 price of the option.

This example demonstrates two very important points. First, when you buy an option, you have a right but not an obligation to do something. You can always let the expiration date go by, at which point the option becomes worthless. If this happens, you lose 100% of your investment, which is the money you used to pay for the option. Second, an option is merely a contract that deals with an underlying asset. For this reason, options are called derivatives, which means an option derives its value from something else. In our example, the house is the underlying asset. Most of the time, the underlying asset is a stock or an index.

Calls and Puts
The two types of options are calls and puts:

  1. A call gives the holder the right to buy an asset at a certain price within a specific period of time. Calls are similar to having a long position on a stock. Buyers of calls hope that the stock will increase substantially before the option expires.
  2. A put gives the holder the right to sell an asset at a certain price within a specific period of time. Puts are very similar to having a short position on a stock. Buyers of puts hope that the price of the stock will fall before the option expires.

Participants in the Options Market
There are four types of participants in options markets depending on the position they take:

  1. Buyers of calls
  2. Sellers of calls
  3. Buyers of puts
  4. Sellers of puts

People who buy options are called holders and those who sell options are called writers; furthermore, buyers are said to have long positions, and sellers are said to have short positions.

Here is the important distinction between buyers and sellers:

  • Call holders and put holders (buyers) are not obligated to buy or sell. They have the choice to exercise their rights if they choose.
  • Call writers and put writers (sellers), however, are obligated to buy or sell. This means that a seller may be required to make good on a promise to buy or sell.

Don't worry if this seems confusing - it is. For this reason we are going to look at options from the point of view of the buyer. Selling options is more complicated and can be even riskier. At this point, it is sufficient to understand that there are two sides of an options contract.

The Lingo
To trade options, you'll have to know the terminology associated with the options market.

The price at which an underlying stock can be purchased or sold is called the strike price. This is the price a stock price must go above (for calls) or go below (for puts) before a position can be exercised for a profit. All of this must occur before the expiration date.

An option that is traded on a national options exchange such as the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) is known as a listed option. These have fixed strike prices and expiration dates. Each listed option represents 100 shares of company stock (known as a contract).

For call options, the option is said to be in-the-money if the share price is above the strike price. A put option is in-the-money when the share price is below the strike price. The amount by which an option is in-the-money is referred to as intrinsic value.

The total cost (the price) of an option is called the premium. This price is determined by factors including the stock price, strike price, time remaining until expiration (time value) and volatility. Because of all these factors, determining the premium of an option is complicated and beyond the scope of this tutorial.

Options Basics: Why Use Options?

  1. Options Basics: Introduction
  2. Options Basics: What Are Options?
  3. Options Basics: Why Use Options?
  4. Options Basics: How Options Work
  5. Options Basics: Types Of Options
  6. Options Basics: How To Read An Options Table
  7. Options Basics: Conclusion
RELATED TERMS
  1. Bid Wanted

    An announcement by an investor who holds a security that he or ...
  2. Multibank Holding Company

    A company that owns or controls two or more banks. Mutlibank ...
  3. Short Put

    A type of strategy regarding a put option, which is a contract ...
  4. Wingspread

    To maximize potential returns for certain levels of risk (while ...
  5. Volatility Smile

    A u-shaped pattern that develops when an option’s implied volatility ...
  6. Nadex

    Nadex stands for the North American Derivatives Exchange, a regulated ...
  1. What are the most common momentum oscillators used in options trading?

    Read about some of the most common technical momentum oscillators that options traders use, and learn why momentum is a critical ...
  2. How are Morning Star patterns interpreted by analysts and traders?

    Understand the elements of the morning star candlestick pattern and how this reversal signal is interpreted by traders and ...
  3. What are the best indicators to identify overbought and oversold stocks?

    Learn about the interpretation of the relative strength index and stochastics, two of the most popular indicators of overbought ...
  4. How effective is creating trade entries after spotting a Golden Cross pattern?

    Explore the components of the golden cross pattern for elements of effective trading strategy based on this pattern, including ...

You May Also Like

Related Tutorials
  1. Bonds & Fixed Income

    Investing For Safety and Income Tutorial

  2. Economics

    American Depositary Receipt Basics

  3. Investing Basics

    Stock Basics Tutorial

  4. Options & Futures

    Binary Options Tutorial

  5. The New York Stock Exchange
    Mutual Funds & ETFs

    Top ETFs And What They Track: A Tutorial

Trading Center