Fund I-Q No.6: Costs and Expenses
  1. Overview Of Mutual Fund Expenses
  2. Fund I-Q No.6: Costs and Expenses
  3. Scoring Fund Cost and Expense Data

Fund I-Q No.6: Costs and Expenses

By Richard Loth (Contact | Biography)

One of the most important criteria for finding investment quality in a mutual fund is the indisputable fact that low-cost funds outperform high-cost funds. It is that simple. In terms of putting this concept into practice, mutual fund investors should:

1. Avoid funds with sales charges (loads) and 12b-1 fees. Choose funds with rock-bottom expense ratios.
Besides adding to your initial cost of investing, investing in a fund with a load incurs a "hidden fee." To illustrate how this happens, let's compare two fund investments. The XYZ Fund and the ABC Fund are similar in all respects with the exception that XYZ has an up-front sales charge of 5.75% and ABC is no load. The assumed annual total return for both funds is a steady 8% on the amount invested.

Deducting the 5.75% load ($575) from the initial investment of $10,000 in XYZ leaves $9,425 to compound at an 8% rate. With the ABC no-load fund, the full $10,000 compounds at the same rate.
The difference in compounded total returns between the XYZ Fund and the ABC Fund for the indicated time periods are $1,241, $2,680 and $5,786, all in favor of ABC. Looked at another way, the investment in XYZ, because of the lower discounted initial investment amount ($9,425), cost that investor a "hidden fee" equal to the difference of the compounded total returns.

Equating fund investment quality with a low expense ratio is a well established conclusion of a number of investment research studies. According to the Boston-based Financial Research Corporation (FRC), not only is the expense ratio the best predictor of performance, it is the only statistically reliable predictor. In July 2005, MarketWatch's Paul Farrell reported on a then recently completed FRC study:

Details ABC Fund XYZ Fund Differential
Funds to Invest $10,000 $10,000 -0
Minus Load -0 $575 $575
Actual Investment $10,000 $9,425 $575
Compounded Return
10-year $21,589 $20,348 $1,241
20-year $46,610 $43,930 $2,680
30-year $100,627 $94,841 $5,786

The FRC tested 11 popular criteria investors use to pick funds: Morningstar ratings, past performance, turnover ratios, asset size, expense ratios, manager tenure and net sales, plus four risk/volatility measures - standard deviation, alpha, beta and the Sharpe ratio. FRC's research suggested that the expense ratio was the most reliable predictor.

According to FRC, funds with low operating costs deliver above-average future performance across nearly all time periods. Other criteria proved to be statistically unreliable predictors - including Morningstar's popular star ratings and the Sharpe ratio, which calculates risk-reward variables for investments. (To learn more, read The Sharpe Ratio Can Oversimplify Risk.)

2. When it comes to mutual fund costs and expenses, a mutual fund's investment quality increases with the absence of sales charges and 12b-1 fees and the presence of low expense and portfolio turnover ratios. Low-cost funds outperform high-cost funds.
To help readers get a quantitative fix on expense ratios, let's look at some averages by broad fund categories as per Morningstar's FundInvestor year-end 2005 fund statistics for its universe of 500 of the most widely traded mutual funds:

Large Cap Stock 1.35% to 1.53%
Mid Cap Stock 1.47% to 1.62%
Small Cap Stock 1.50% to 1.71%
Allocation Funds 1.49%
Foreign Stock 1.71%
Emerging Market Stock 1.98%
High Quality Bond 1.02%
High Yield Bond 1.27%

Most top-rated domestic stock funds are going to have expense ratios around the 1% mark. Those of low-cost fund companies will be at or below 0.75%.

Return to the Main Menu.
Scoring Fund Cost and Expense Data

  1. Overview Of Mutual Fund Expenses
  2. Fund I-Q No.6: Costs and Expenses
  3. Scoring Fund Cost and Expense Data
RELATED TERMS
  1. Expense Ratio

    A measure of what it costs an investment company to operate a ...
  2. Fund Of Funds

    A mutual fund that invests in other mutual funds. This method ...
  3. Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    For a mutual fund or other type of fund management structure, ...
  4. No-Load Fund

    A mutual fund in which shares are sold without a commission or ...
  5. Capped Fund

    A mutual fund that has a limited amount of operating expenses ...
  6. Level Load

    An annual charge deducted from an investor's mutual fund assets ...
RELATED FAQS
  1. When is an expense ratio considered high and when is it considered low?

    Discover what is considered an exceptionally high or low expense ratio for a mutual fund or ETF, and learn why this figure ... Read Answer >>
  2. Why is a mutual fund's expense ratio important to investors?

    Understand the nature of mutual fund expense ratios, and learn why it is critically important for investors to be aware of ... Read Answer >>
  3. What kinds of expenses are included in the expense ratio?

    Understand the variety of costs and charges that are included in the total expense ratio assessed to investors using mutual ... Read Answer >>
  4. What is an appropriate large cap mutual fund fee?

    Discover what an appropriate fee for a large-cap mutual fund should be, and learn how choosing index mutual funds can lead ... Read Answer >>
  5. Do mutual fund trading costs hurt your bottom line?

    Find out how a mutual fund's expense ratio could be eating into your bottom line, what costs are included and an example ... Read Answer >>
  6. How do I calculate the loan-to-value ratio using Excel?

    Learn what a mutual fund and a money market fund are, and understand the differences between each and how they serve various ... Read Answer >>

You May Also Like

Hot Definitions
  1. Return On Invested Capital - ROIC

    A calculation used to assess a company's efficiency at allocating the capital under its control to profitable investments. ...
  2. Law Of Demand

    A microeconomic law that states that, all other factors being equal, as the price of a good or service increases, consumer ...
  3. Cost Of Debt

    The effective rate that a company pays on its current debt. This can be measured in either before- or after-tax returns; ...
  4. Yield Curve

    A line that plots the interest rates, at a set point in time, of bonds having equal credit quality, but differing maturity ...
  5. Stop-Limit Order

    An order placed with a broker that combines the features of stop order with those of a limit order. A stop-limit order will ...
  6. Keynesian Economics

    An economic theory of total spending in the economy and its effects on output and inflation. Keynesian economics was developed ...
Trading Center