Profitability Indicator Ratios: Effective Tax Rate
AAA
  1. Profitability Indicator Ratios: Introduction
  2. Profitability Indicator Ratios: Profit Margin Analysis
  3. Profitability Indicator Ratios: Effective Tax Rate
  4. Profitability Indicator Ratios: Return On Assets
  5. Profitability Indicator Ratios: Return On Equity
  6. Profitability Indicator Ratios: Return On Capital Employed

Profitability Indicator Ratios: Effective Tax Rate

By Richard Loth (Contact | Biography)

This ratio is a measurement of a company's tax rate, which is calculated by comparing its income tax expense to its pretax income. This amount will often differ from the company's stated jurisdictional rate due to many accounting factors, including foreign exchange provisions. This effective tax rate gives a good understanding of the tax rate the company faces.

Formula:

Components:


As of December 31, 2005, with amounts expressed in millions, Zimmer Holdings had a provision for income taxes in its income statement of $307.30 (income statement), and pretax income of $1,040.70 (income statement). By dividing, the equation gives us an effective tax rate of 29.5% for FY 2005.

Variations:
None

Commentary:
The variances in this percentage can have a material effect on the net-income figure.

Peer company comparisons of net profit margins can be problematic as a result of the impact of the effective tax rate on net profit margins. The same can be said of year-over-year comparisons for the same company. This circumstance is one of the reasons some financial analysts prefer to use the operating or pretax profit figures instead of the net profit number for profitability ratio calculation purposes.

One could argue that any event that improves a company's net profit margin is a good one. However, from a quality of earnings perspective, tax management maneuverings (while certainly legitimate) are less desirable than straight-forward positive operational results.

For example, Zimmer Holdings' effective tax rates have been erratic over the three years reported in their 2005 income statement. From 33.6% in 2003, down to 25.9% in 2004 and back up to 29.5% in 2005. Obviously, this tax provision volatility makes an objective judgment of its true, or operational, net profit performance difficult to determine.

Tax management techniques to lessen the tax burden are practiced, to one degree or another, by many companies. Nevertheless, a relatively stable effective tax rate percentage, and resulting net profit margin, would seem to indicate that the company's operational managers are more responsible for a company's profitability than the company's tax accountants.

Profitability Indicator Ratios: Return On Assets

  1. Profitability Indicator Ratios: Introduction
  2. Profitability Indicator Ratios: Profit Margin Analysis
  3. Profitability Indicator Ratios: Effective Tax Rate
  4. Profitability Indicator Ratios: Return On Assets
  5. Profitability Indicator Ratios: Return On Equity
  6. Profitability Indicator Ratios: Return On Capital Employed
RELATED TERMS
  1. Combined Ratio

    A measure of profitability used by an insurance company to indicate ...
  2. Policyholder Dividend Ratio

    The policyholder dividend ratio is a measurement of the profitability ...
  3. Return On Policyholder Surplus

    The ratio of an insurance company’s net income to its policyholder ...
  4. Historic Pricing

    A method for calculating the value of an asset using the last ...
  5. Lean Enterprise

    A production and management philosophy that considers any part ...
  6. Return On Equity - ROE

    The amount of net income returned as a percentage of shareholders ...
  1. What does a mutual fund's beta coefficient measure?

    Evaluate the risk associated with a particular mutual fund by determining its beta coefficient, which illustrates the fund's ...
  2. What metrics should I evaluate when looking for high-yielding dividend stocks?

    Evaluate high-yield dividend stocks to determine if they are a good investment to produce steady income. Learn what questions ...
  3. What's the safest way to invest in high-yielding dividend stocks?

    Learn about some of the most important safety factors that you need to consider before you invest in high-yielding dividend ...
  4. What's the difference between retained earnings and revenue?

    See why retained earnings and revenue are both considered important measurements of a company's financial performance, and ...
Related Tutorials
  1. Investing Basics

    Industry Handbook

  2. Bonds & Fixed Income

    Investing For Safety and Income Tutorial

  3. Fundamental Analysis

    Discounted Cash Flow Analysis

  4. Fundamental Analysis

    Ratio Analysis Tutorial

  5. Economics

    American Depositary Receipt Basics

Trading Center