When beginning capital-budgeting analysis, it is important to determine a project's cash flows. These cash flows can be segmented as follows:
1. Initial Investment Outlay
These are the costs that are needed to start the project, such as new equipment, installation, etc.
2. Operating Cash Flow over a Project's Life
This is the additional cash flow a new project generates.
3. Terminal-Year Cash Flow
This is the final cash flow, both the inflows and outflows, at the end of the project's life; for example, potential salvage value at the end of a machine's life. Example: Expansion Project
Newco wants to add to its production capacity and is looking closely at investing in Machine B. Machine B has a cost of $2,000, with shipping and installation expenses of $500 and a $300 cost in net working capital. Newco expects the machine to last for five years, at which point Machine B will have a book value (BV) of $1,000 ($2,000 minus five years of $200 annual depreciation) and a potential market value of $800.
With respect to cash flows, Newco expects the new machine to generate an additional $1,500 in revenues and costs of $200. We will assume Newco has a tax rate of 40%. The maximum payback period that the company has established is five years.
Let's calculate the project's initial investment outlay, operating cash flow over the project's life and the terminal-year cash flow for the expansion project.
Initial Investment Outlay:
Machine cost + shipping and installation expenses + change in net working capital = $2,000 + $500 + $300 = $2,800
Operating Cash Flow:
CFt = (revenues - costs)*(1 - tax rate)
CF1 = ($1,500 - $200)*(1 - 40%) = $780
CF2 = ($1,500 - $200)*(1 - 40%) = $780
CF3 = ($1,500 - $200)*(1 - 40%) = $780
CF4 = ($1,500 - $200)*(1 - 40%) = $780
CF5 = ($1,500 - $200)*(1 - 40%) = $780
Terminal Cash Flow:
Tips and Tricks
The key metrics for determining the terminal cash flow are salvage value of the asset, net working capital and tax benefit/loss from the asset.
The terminal cash flow can be calculated as illustrated:
Return of net working capital +$300
Salvage value of the machine +$800
Tax reduction from loss (salvage < BV) +$80
Net terminal cash flow $1,180
Total year-five cash flow $1,960
For determining the tax benefit or loss, a benefit is received if the book value of the asset is more than the salvage value, and a tax loss is recorded if the book value of the asset is less than the salvage value.
Incremental Cash Flows
InvestingFind out how to analyze the way a company spends its money to determine whether there will be any money left for investors.
Managing WealthWhy is cash flow so important, and what steps can a business take to improve it?
InvestingCash flow analysis is a critical process for both companies and investors. Find out what you need to know about it.
InvestingReview Amazon's cash flow situation, including its free cash flow yield, operating cash flow from organic growth and cash flow from debt financing.
InvestingA cash flow statement records the amounts of cash and cash equivalents entering and leaving a company.
Small BusinessLearn about the different types of cash flows and the importance for businesses to properly manage their cash flows.
InvestingDifferences between accrual accounting and cash flows show why net income is easier to manipulate.
InvestingCash in the bank is what every company strives to achieve. Find out how to determine how much a company is generating and keeping.
Personal FinanceImproving cash flow in construction requires some sector-specific strategies.
InvestingLearn about the operating cash flow to sales ratio, free cash flow to operating cash flow ratio and free cash flow coverage ratio.