InAlliance Financial Planning
Elizabeth Saghi, President of InAlliance Financial Financial Planning, is the founder and President of InAlliance Financial Planning, a fee-only financial planning firm serving individuals and small businesses in Santa Barbara and throughout the Central Coast region. Her mission is to help her clients take full ownership of the financial direction of their lives.
Elizabeth became a financial planner because she wanted to help people discover the power of the financial planning process. She is especially passionate about helping women, in particular, become financially literate, independent and secure. And she truly believes that if clients have control of their money, they'll have control of their lives.
Elizabeth has over 30 years of experience in the financial services industry, where she worked in New York, London and San Francisco as a financial advisor for major investment banks including Morgan Stanley, Merrill Lynch, BNP Paribas and Credit Suisse. Prior to founding InAlliance Financial Planning in 2014, she was the Marketing Manager for Santa Barbara Bank & Trust's Wealth Management and Trust division. She holds a BS from Boston University, and a Certificate in Financial Planning from the College of Financial Planning in Denver.
As a Certified Financial Planner (CFP®) and Registered Investment Advisor (RIA), Elizabeth is considered a fiduciary and therefore, must always act in the best interests of her clients.
BS, Nursing Science, Boston University
Certificate in Financial Planning, College of Financial Planning, Denver
Fee-only - Hourly, Project and Retainer
A hedge fund is an actively managed investment fund that pools money from accredited investors - those who can afford to take a higher than normal risk. Hedge funds are not subject to many of the regulations that protect investors so they can employ a number of different strategies to achieve higher returns. They can invest or trade in all sorts of securities, take long or short positions, use alternative investments such as derivatives, or employ risk arbitrage strategies. Hedge fund investors are mostly high net worth individuals, pension funds, insurance companies, banks and endowment funds. Hedge funds normally charge an annual management fee of 1 or 2% as well as 20% of the profits.
A private equity fund is also a managed investment fund that pools money, but they normally invest in private, non-publicly traded companies and businesses. Investors in private equity funds are similar to hedge fund investors in that they are accredited and can afford to take on greater risk. The investment managers of a private equity fund invest the money for a longer period of time than hedge fund managers. Therefore, the private equity investor's money is not as liquid and returns are achieved when the investment is sold or goes public.
The simple answer is that buying stocks is almost always a less risky strategy that buying options. When you buy a stock, you are making an investment in a company and you can hold that investment for as long as you like. When you buy an option, your holding period is limited to the date the option expires. If you make money during that time period, great. If not, you've lost the money you invested to purchase the option and that's it.
An option is a contract to either buy a stock or sell a stock at a specified price during a specified time period. A call option gives you the right to buy the stock and a put option gives you the right to sell a stock. You can either buy or sell a call option and you can either buy or sell a put option. If you are bullish on the market, you would either buy a call option or sell a put option. Conversely, if you are bearish on the market, you would buy a put option or sell a call option. You don't need to own the underlying stock to trade the option.
Buying options is usually less risky than selling options because your loss is limited to the amount you paid for that option. But selling options can actually expose you to unlimited loss. Remember that an option is a contract between two entities, so for every buyer there is a seller and vice-versa. For example, let's say you sell a call option on XYZ stock when the price of the stock is $100 but you think the price is going down. Someone bought that option from you because they thought the price was going up. So before the option expires, the stock moves to $120. Now the buyer uses his call option to buy the stock from you at $100. You then have to go into the market and buy it for $120 and sell it to him for $100. You've lost money obviously, but the stock could have moved much higher so the potential for loss is unlimited. If you had owned the underlying stock and sold that option, you could just deliver the stock to the buyer of the option. That is called "covered call buying" and it is a fairly conservative strategy that generates income on the stocks you hold in your portfolio.
If I have confused you at this point with the explanation above, then you should not be buying options or do so only under the guidance of a professional who has had lots of experience trading options. There are many option strategies that use combinations of selling and/or buying puts and/or calls, but they are beyond the scope of this discussion. As I said at the beginning of this answer, the simple and less risky strategy is to buy the stock.
I hope this helps and good luck with your investment strategy.
Yes, there might be a difference between the market capitalization and the market value of an equity, depending on how you use the term "market value." First of all, I think by "equity" in this case, you are probably referring to a share of a publicly traded company. Every public company has a specific number of outstanding shares that are available to be bought and sold on an exchange. If you multiply the current price of that share by the number of outstanding shares in the company, you will have the market capitalization value. For example, if XYZ company has 1,000,000 shares outstanding and the current price is $10 per share, the market capitalization of the company would be $10,000,000. You could say this is the current market value of the company. However, some might say the market value of a company is the share price or it's book value. It's a vague term so you would have know in what context it's used.
Both a Dividend Reinvestment Plan (DRIP) and Dollar Cost Averaging (DCA) are effective plans, but they don't have to be mutually exclusive. You can combine the two plans. A DRIP plan effectively uses the power of compounding for additional growth. A DCA plan eliminates the question of market-timing or "is this a good time to buy", which is usually not an effective long-term investment strategy.
If one chooses to invest regularly and consistently as in DCA, I would recommend that one also choose to reinvest the dividends at the same time. 40% of the average annual returns in the stock market over the past 75 years (or more) has come from dividends that were reinvested into shares of stock.
Trading options is a sophisticated investment strategy and can be extremely risky. There are many complex strategies, but I'll try to keep it simple. Basically, there are two types of options: calls and puts. Buying calls allow you to purchase an underlying security at a specific price within a specific time period. Buying puts allow you to sell an underlying security at a specific price within a specific time period. So when buying options, you would buy calls if you were bullish and puts if you were bearish. If you're wrong and the trades goes against you, your loss is limited to the amount of money you paid for that call or put. You can always exercise your option and buy or sell the security before it actually expires, but that depends on your particular situation.
But for every option trade, like stock trades, there has to be a buyer and a seller. Selling calls and puts is where the risk comes in. If you sell a call, then you're obligated to sell the underlying security at the specified price if the buyer of the call decides to exercise the option and buy the security. What if the market has gone up since you sold that call? Well, you'll have to go into the market and buy the stock at a higher price in order to deliver and sell the stock at a lower price to the call buyer. Essentially, you're buying high and selling low and that is always a losing strategy. Because the upward movement of a stock is unlimited, your loss potential could also be unlimited. If the market goes down and the call you sold expires, then you have made money in the amount that you received for the call.
When you sell a put, you're obligated to buy the security at a specific price. What if the market goes down? Then the buyer of the put can exercise his option and sell the security to you at a higher price. You now own a security that is worth less than what you paid for it. Again, if the market goes up, then the put you sold will probably expire worthless and you will have made money.
To summarize, buying puts and calls have limited risk while selling calls and puts can have unlimited risk. There are exceptions when you employ different strategies, such a covered call writing, but that is beyond the scope of your question. If you are interested in trading options, I would advise you to work with an advisor who has both the knowledge and experience in this area.