An emerging market economy (EME) is defined as an economy with low to middle per capita income. It is a nation whose economy mimics that of a developed nation but does not fully meet the requirements to be classified as one. The term was coined in 1981 by Antoine W. Van Agtmael of the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank.
- An emerging market economy (EME) is a nation with an economy with low to middle per capita income and is moving towards becoming developed or once was.
- Emerging market economies are transitioning from a closed market system to an open market system while developing economic reform programs.
- EMEs realize rises in local and foreign investments.
- Emerging market economies carry a great risk for investors as they are not yet stable or proven.
Understanding Emerging Market Economies
Although the term "emerging market" is loosely defined, countries, varying in size, that fall into this category are usually considered emerging because of their developments and reforms. Hence, even though China is considered one of the world's economic powerhouses, it is lumped into this category alongside much smaller economies with fewer resources, such as Tunisia.
Both China and Tunisia belong to this category because they embarked on economic development and reform programs and have begun to open up their markets and "emerge" onto the global scene. EMEs are considered to be fast-growing economies. Here's an overview of the GDPs of various nations.
Emerging Market Economy
EMEs are characterized as transitional, meaning they are in the process of moving from a closed economy to an open market economy while building accountability within the system. Examples include the former Soviet Union and Eastern bloc countries.
As an emerging market, a country is embarking on an economic reform program that will lead it to stronger and more responsible economic performance levels, as well as transparency and efficiency in the capital market.
An EME will also reform its exchange rate system because a stable local currency builds confidence in an economy, especially when foreigners consider investing. Exchange rate reforms also reduce the desire for local investors to send their capital abroad (capital flight). Besides implementing reforms, an EME is also most-likely receiving aid and guidance from large donor countries and/or world organizations, such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF).
China's, the top emerging market economy, GDP growth from 2013-2017.
Characteristics of an Emerging Market Economy
One key characteristic of the EME is an increase in local and foreign investment (portfolio and direct). Growth in investment in a country often indicates that the country has built confidence in the local economy.
Moreover, foreign investment is a signal that the world has taken notice of the emerging market, and when international capital flows are directed toward an EME, the injection of foreign currency into the local economy adds volume to the country's stock market and long-term investment to the infrastructure.
For foreign investors or developed-economy businesses, an EME provides an outlet for expansion by serving, for example, as a new place for a new factory or new sources of revenue. For the recipient country, employment levels rise, labor and managerial skills become more refined, and a sharing and transfer of technology occurs.
In the long-run, the EME's overall production levels should rise, increasing its gross domestic product (GDP) and eventually lessening the gap between the emerged and emerging worlds.
Portfolio Investment and Risks
Because their markets are in transition and hence not stable, emerging markets offer an opportunity to investors who are looking to add some risk to their portfolios. The possibility for some economies to fall back into a not-completely-resolved civil war or a revolution sparking a change in government could result in a return to nationalization, expropriation, and the collapse of the capital market.
Because the risk of an EME investment is higher than an investment in a developed market, panic, speculation, and knee-jerk reactions are also more common. The 1997 Asian crisis, during which international portfolio flows into these countries began to reverse themselves, is a good example of how EMEs can be high-risk investment opportunities.
However, the bigger the risk, the bigger the reward. Emerging market investments have thus become a standard practice among investors aiming to diversify while adding risk.
Local Politics vs. Global Economy
An emerging market economy must have to weigh local political and social factors as it attempts to open up its economy to the world. The people of an emerging market, who are accustomed to being protected from the outside world, can often be distrustful of foreign investment. Emerging economies may also often have to deal with issues of national pride because citizens may be opposed to having foreigners owning parts of the local economy.
Moreover, opening up an emerging economy means that it will also be exposed not only to new work ethics and standards but also to new cultures. The introduction and impact of, say, fast food and music videos to some local markets have been a by-product of foreign investment. Over the generations, this can change the very fabric of a society, and if a population is not entirely trusting of change, it may fight back hard to stop it.
The Bottom Line
Although emerging economies may be able to look forward to brighter opportunities and offer new areas of investment for foreign and developed economies, local officials in EMEs need to consider the effects of an open economy on citizens.
Furthermore, investors need to determine the risks when considering investing in an EME. The process of emergence may be difficult, slow, and often stagnant. And even though emerging markets have survived global and local challenges in the past, they had to overcome some large obstacles to do so.